1. How common is breast cancer?Among Americanwomen breast cancer is the most common cancer except for skin cancer.
Atpresent, an American woman has an average risk of 12% developing breast cancersometime in her life. American cancer society has estimated that in 2018, therewill be diagnosis of about 266,120 new cases of invasive breast cancer and63,920 new cases of carcinoma in situ in women.Reference: About Breast Cancer.
(2018, January 4). Retrieved January 15, 2018, from www.cancer.
org:https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/about/how-common-is-breast-cancer.html 2. How manydeaths per year are attributed to the disease/health problem?Breast cancer isthe second leading cause of cancer death in women. There are 1/38 chances thata women will die from breast cancer.
In 2018 it is estimated that breast cancerwill cause 40,920 deaths in females.Reference:About Breast Cancer. (2018, January 4). Retrieved January 15, 2018, from www.cancer.org:https://www.
cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/about/how-common-is-breast-cancer.html 3. How has thehealth problem/disease pattern changed in the last 10 years? (i.e., is it morecommon than 10 years ago, less common or about the same?). Give specificnumbers, rates or percentages, when possible.
During2005-2014, overall breast cancer incidence rates were stable among Non HispanicWhite and American Indian/Alaska Native women but it increased among AsianPacific/Islander (1.7% per year), Non Hispanic Black (0.4% per year), andHispanic (0.
3% per year) women. The rates of in situ breast cancer have beenstable among women 50 and older since 2000 and among younger women since 2007.Reference:Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017-2018. (2017). Retrieved January 15, 2018, from American CancerSociety: https://www.cancer.
org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures-2017-2018.pdf 4. What are somerisk factors associated with the disease/problem?The risk factorsinclude: being a woman, age over 55, Inherited genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, familyand personal history of breast cancer, early menstruation and menopause after55, tobacco and alcohol use, being overweight, not being physically active, nothaving children and not breast feeding, hormonal contraceptives and combinedhormone therapy, having dense breast tissue and benign breast conditions, useof Diethylstilbestrol (DES).
Reference:Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention. (2017, September 6). Retrieved January 15, 2018, fromAmerican Cancer Society: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/risk-and-prevention.html 5. Identify andlist one or two Healthy People 2020objectives that directly or indirectly relate to the health problem/disease.One of the goalsis to reduce female breast cancer death rate and the second one is to reducelate stage female breast cancer.
Reference:Cancer. (n.d.).Retrieved January 15, 2018, from Healthy People 2020: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/Cancer/objectives#4069 6. What agerange(s) are most affected by the problem?Older people areat high risk for breast cancer.
Women at age 55 and above are found to bediagnosed more common. Average age of men when they get diagnosed with breastcancer is 68.Reference:What Are the Risk Fctors for Breast Cancer in Men? (2016, January 26). Retrieved January 15, 2018, fromAmerican Cancer Society:https://www.cancer.
org/cancer/breast-cancer-in-men/causes-risks-prevention/risk-factors.htmlBreast Cancer Risk and Prevention. (2017, September 6). Retrieved January 15, 2018, fromAmerican Cancer Society: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/risk-and-prevention.html 7.
Havedifferences/disparities between different genders been identified? If so, whatare they?The incidence ofbreast cancer in men is 100 times less than women. Female hormones and the genemutations play an important role in causing breast cancer in women.Reference:Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention. (2017, September 6). Retrieved January 15, 2018, fromAmerican Cancer Society: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/risk-and-prevention.
html 8. Is theproblem more frequent among African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians or Native Americans,compared to Whites? If so, present data describingthe differences/disparitiesIncidence ofbreast cancer rate is higher in White and African-American women. The incidenceof breast cancer in people between ages 65 to 84 is high in White women. ButAfrican American women have higher occurrence of breast cancer before age 40and are more likely to die from the same cause at every age.
Breast cancerincidence from 2011-2015 per 100,000 women according to race is listed below. · Non-Hispanic White – 128.7· Non-Hispanic Black – 125.
5· American Indian – 100· 7Hispanic – 91.9 · Asian/Pacific Islander – 90.7Reference:Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017-2018. (2017).
Retrieved January 15, 2018, from American CancerSociety: https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures-2017-2018.
pdf 9. Are thereregional variations within the U.S. for the disease/health problem? If so, what are they?According toliterature there are more incidents of breast cancer in some states compared tothe others.
A recent study shows incidence rates were more than twice amongwomen in Alaska (141.3 per 100,000) compared to people living in the SouthwestUS (59.6 per 100,000) during 1999-2009.Reference:Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017-2018.
(2017). Retrieved January 15, 2018, from American CancerSociety: https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures-2017-2018.pdf 10. If there aredisparities based on gender or race/ethnicity, briefly propose reason(s) forthe differences.
For example: 1) Do youthink disparities are due to genetics? 2) Socio-economic issues? 3) Educationallevels? 4) Culture? 5) Values/beliefs? 6) Lack of adequate health care? 7)Something unknown? If there are noapparent disparities, suggest why that might be. ***This can be an ‘educated opinion’ orconjecture. If you can findevidence-based support for your opinion, include it.The disparitiesresults from variations in risk factors, access to medical screening andtreatment which are impacted by legislative policies, availability of medicalservice and proper referral to appropriate services identifying the high riskpeople. Also BRCA1 and BRCA 2 gene mutation tend to occur more in someethnicity such as Eastern European and Jewish people.Reference:Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017-2018.
(2017). Retrieved January 15, 2018, from American CancerSociety: https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures-2017-2018.
pdf 11. Suggestmeasures that can be taken at the macro (upstream) level that might help reduceany disparities.Making healthcare recourses available and accessible for people in all socio economic statuswill open doors to the vast possibility of early screening, detection andtreatment. Educating community about breast cancer and providingrecommendations for affordable health care plans can make people more awareabout their risks and available options for health care.
Reference:Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017-2018. (2017). Retrieved January 15, 2018, from American CancerSociety: https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures-2017-2018.pdf