(iii) Project Tiger, Project Rhino and other eco-developmental projects have been introduced. (iv) 89 National Parks, 49 wildlife Sanctuaries and Zoological gardens were set up. 2. Differentiate between dry and moist deciduous forests. Dry deciduous forest: (i) They are found in areas having rainfall between 100 cm and 70 cm.
(ii) They are found in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh (iii) Important trees are Teak, Sal, Peepal. Moist deciduous forest: (i) They are found in areas receiving rainfall between 200 cm and 100 cm. (ii) They are found in Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Orissa and Chhattisgarh. (iii) Important trees are Bamboos, Sal, and Shisham etc.
3. A great variety of flora is found in India. Give three geographical factors responsible for this diversification of flora. Factors responsible for Flora and Fauna: (i) Land – Nature of land influences the type of vegetation. Fertile land for agriculture and Undulating land for forests (ii) Soil – Different type of soils provide basis for different vegetation.
(iii) Temperature – Vegetation differs from low temperature to high temperature. (iv) Precipitation – Heavy rainfall supports dense vegetation compared to areas of low rainfall. 4.
Compare the features of Tropical Evergreen forests and Tropical Deciduous forests. Evergreen: Rainfall more than 200 cm; trees reach great heights luxuriant vegetation, not definite time for leaf shedding e.g. – Ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood. Deciduous: Rainfall between 200 cm – 70 cm; trees shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks in dry summer ; two types – dry and wet deciduous – sal, shisham, bamboo, teak etc. 5.
In mountainous area, there is change in natural vegetation due to decrease in temperature. Justify giving examples for different zones. (i) West temperate forests – 1000 to 2000 m – evergreen broad leaf trees, eg. – oaks chestnuts.
(ii) Temperate forests – 1500 – 3000 m – coniferous trees – pine, deodar silver fir (iii) 3600 m – alpine vegetation – junipers, pines etc. (iv) Very high attitude – tundra vegetation – mosses lichen. (v) There is a succession of natural vegetation belts from tropical to tundra region. 6.
Where are evergreen forests found in India? Give any two characteristics of this forest. The evergreen forests – Are found in Western Ghats, Lakshadweep islands, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, upper parts of Assam and Tamil Nadu coasts (Any two) Characteristics of these forests- (i) The trees reach great heights upto 60 meters or even above. (ii) As the region is warm and wet throughout the year, it has a luxuriant vegetation of all kinds – trees, shrubs and creepers giving it a multilayered structure. (iii) There is no definite time for trees to shed their leaves, as such these forests appear green all the year round. 7.
Name the two sub-types of Tropical deciduous forests. State any two features of each type also. Moist deciduous; Dry deciduous Moist deciduous: Rainfall 100-200 cms. Located in the eastern parts of the country; Species; Teak, Bamboo, Sal, Shisham, (any two) Dry deciduous: Rainfall 100-70 cms. Found in rainier parts of peninsular plateau, Bihar and U.
P. plains; open stretches with Sal, Teak, Peepal, Neem; major part cleared for grazing. 8. Name the vegetation found at high altitude in our country and mention animals are found in this region. Montane Forests: (i) Wet temperature type (ii) Trees: Deodar, fir, cedar (1500-3000 m) Silver fir, junipers (3600 m and above) (iii) Animals: spotted deer, wild sheep, jack, rabbit, yak etc. (iv) Regions: Slopes of Himalayas, North-East India. 9.
Explain any three characteristics of Tropical Evergreen forest. Characteristics of tropical evergreen forest: (i) Trees are tall, thick and have vigorous growth. (ii) Height app. 60 mts.
(iii) Large number of trees growing together with thick undergrowth. (iv) E.g.: Mahogany, Ebony, Rosewood etc. 10. Why are evergreen forests found in western slpes of Westerns Ghats? Give any two characteristics of these forests. Reasons of Evergreen forests: (i) Warm and wet climate conditions (ii) Rainfall is above 200 cm Characteristics of Evergreen forests: (i) Trees are tall and thick over 60 mts. (ii) Large number of species (iii) E.
g. – Mahogany, Ebony, Rosewood, Bamboo etc. 11. What are the main characteristics of Tropical Rain forest? Characteristics of Tropical Rain Forests: (i) They are wet evergreen forest. (ii) They are found in areas having hot and humid climate.
(iii) Trees of this forest are tall, thick and have rigorous growth. (iv)Trees Eire hardwood and have large number of species. (v) Trees of particular species are highly scattered, (any three) 12. In which region are the thorny forests and scrubs found in India? Mention any two characteristics of such type of vegetation? Thorn forests and scrubs are found in the North western part of India including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, U.P.
and Haryana. Characteristics: (i) Trees Eire scattered and has long roots penclrating deps into soil to get moisture (ii) Stems are succulent to conserve water. (iii) Leaves Eire thick and small to minimize evaporation, 13. Explain the different Biodiversity of India. India is one of the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the world; (i) India has about 47000 species of plants. (ii) India occupies tenth place in world and fourth place in Asia.
(iii) It has 15000 flowering plants. (iv) It is home of 89000 species of animals, (any three) 14. What is a mangrove forest? How does the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude lead to the corresponding change in natural vegetation, in mountainous areas? Mangrove forest: The forest found in the coast influenced by the tides. (i) Succession of forest in the same order as we see form tropical to tundra region. (ii) Wet temperate forests from 1000 to 2000 meters. (iii) Temperate forests containing trees like Pine Deodar at 1500 to 3000 meters (iv)Temperate grasslands in between 3000 to 3600 meters (v) Alpine Vegetation above 3600 meters. 16. How does climate affect the flora and fauna in a country? Explain.
Climate has three aspects that have a bearing on flora and fauna – temperature, photoperiod and precipitation. (i) Temperature – along with humidity in the air, precipitation and soil determines the character and the extent of vegetation is different in low temperature regions than in high temperature regions. (ii) Photoperiod – refers to duration of sunlight experience in a region. This variation is due to a number of factors like altitude, latitude, season and duration of the day.
(iii) Precipitation – the major source of precipitation in India is rainfall. Areas of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation as compared to areas of less rainfall. 17. What type of climatic conditions support the growth of Tropical Evergreen Forests? Where in India will you find this forest type? Write with examples. Climatic conditions are: (i) Rainfall over 200 cm with short dry season. (ii) High temperature.
Area of occurrence in India: Western Ghats, upper parts of Assam and Tamil Nadu coast and island groups of Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep. Examples: Ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood, Rubber, Cinchona (any two) 18. Describe any three features of thorn forests. (i) Areas with an annual rainfall of less than 70 cm have thorny bushes. (ii) Babul, Khair, Plums, Cactus and Dates are important species of trees. (iii) These forests have long roots and sharp thorns. 19.
Write three main characteristics of tropical deciduous forest. Features of Tropical Deciduous forest. (i) Most wide spread in India (ii) Monsoon forest (iii) Region receiving rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm. (iv) Divided into moist and dry deciduous (v) Teak, Bamboos, Sal, Shisham etc. are import species, (any three) 20.
Write three measures to conserve eco-system. (i) Deforestation should be stopped. (ii) Killing of animals should be stopped. (iii) By developing more sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere reserves etc. 21. Give two main differences between Tropical evergreen and Tropical deciduous forests? Name one tree that grows in each of these forests. Tropical Evergreen forests: (i) Tropical evergreen forests receive more than 200 cm of rain.
(ii) They have a multi-layered structure – a luxuriant vegetation-trees, shrubs and creepers. (iii) It has no definite time to shed leaves so the forests appear green throughout the year. Tropical Deciduous Forests: (i) Tropical deciduous forests receive between 70 and 200 cm of rain – are called monsoon forests. (ii) The trees shed their leaves for six to eight weeks in summer.
Evergreen forests: Ebony, mahogany and other relevant tree Deciduous forests: Teak, shisham, sandalwood, any other relevant tree