Fossil fuels are reducing day by day,
and there is a need to find out an alternative fuel to fulfill the energy
demand of the world. Micro-algae have received substantial attention as a
potential biomass for producing sustainable biofuel. Micro algae based biofuels
and their co-products offer abundant support in helping to meet the Renewable
Fuels Standard. Ecological and commercial growth of industries requires safe,
sustainable resources of energy. Sustainability is a key source in natural
resource management, and it comprises operational efficiency and minimization
of environmental effects. Depletion in the fossil fuel reserves along with
emission of greenhouse  gases  and  growing  demand  for
energy  has necessitated   the search  for alternative energy resources. Therefore, several
research initiatives aimed at searching alternative renewable biofuels as
substitute for energy resources. However, different energy resources similar to
first generation biofuels resulted from crops such as sugarcane, maize, sugar
beet etc. place an enormous stress on world food markets and second generation
biofuels derived from lignocellulosic material from nonfood crop biomass such
as wheat straw, wheat bran, corn etc. report some of the above problems and
also there is concern over competing land use or needed land use changes. Therefore,
based on current knowledge third generation biofuels specifically based on
microalgae are considered to be a viable alternative energy resource that is
devoid of the main problems associated with first and second generation
biofuels. Photosynthetic microorganisms like microalgae having growth needs
like light, sugars, CO2, N, P, and K which will produce proteins,
carbohydrates and lipids in massive amounts over short periods of time and also
help in carbon sequestration which is a major greenhouse gas. These products
can be processed into both biofuels and valuable co-products. This chapter
focuses on the technologies underneath microalgae-to-biofuels systems,
concentrating on the biomass production, improvement in algae for increasing
yield, processing, conversion technologies, and the extraction of biofuels.
Microalgae-based biofuels could progressively substitute a substantial
proportion of the fossil fuels required to meet the current growing energy


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