Abstract: the advantages which humans are getting from

Abstract:Ecosystemservices are the advantages humankind derived from the working of the naturalecosystem.  These services arecategorized in the form of provisional, regulatory and cultural services.Humans are considering these services as granted and using without any care.

The role of these services in the social and economic development of society isclear now so the ecosystem needs much more attention and monitoring theseservices is the main part of environmental governance. These services arelinked with biodiversity and habitat quality. Different threat’s including overexploitation, land’stransformation, pollution, climate change, an invasion of alien species andhydrological alteration influence the ecosystem and its biodiversity. Somemethods, models and software’s are developed to asses habitat quality andvaluing ecosystem services but still needs more research and improvement. Valuationof ecosystem services is necessary to achieve sustainable management.Pakistan has not been paid much attention to quantify and valuing theseservices so in this review paper, I asses the ecosystem services in Pakistancontext and highlighting those that have importance for Pakistan. Introduction:Ecosystem services are the advantages which humans aregetting from ecosystem (erholmet al., 2012).

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Forest Ecosystem services are divided in to four categories (1)Supporting services (2) provisional services (3) regulatory services (4)cultural services (MEA, 2005). Provisional, Supporting or regulatory andcultural services include fresh water provision, food and medicine, fuelprovision, fodder provision, maintenance of healthy ecosystem, carbonsequestration or carbon di oxide absorption, oxygen generation, water qualityregulation, soil erosion prevention, nutrient cycling, air purification, noisemitigation, ecotourism, spiritual services and aesthetic services andcontribution to physical and mental health are considered to be of specialimportance in every context (Baggethun and Barton,2013). In recent years, theimportance of biodiversity to global economies, human welfare and survival hasbeen well documented and widely recognized (Butchart et al., 2010; Duffy, 2009;TEEB, 2009).In Pakistan biodiversity is declining and biodiversity have strongrelation with ecosystem services. Ecosystem services represent the benefitsderived by human population. These benefits are obtained from ecosystemfunctions.

(deGroot et al., 2002; MA, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005)including pollination, climate regulation, seed dispersal and carbonsequestration which are influenced by the loss of biodiversity (MEA,2005).Different threat’s including overexploitation, land’s transformation,pollution, climate change, an invasion of alien species and hydrologicalalteration influence the ecosystem and its biodiversity(Turpie, 2017).Data of 50 years for land cover maps was usedto analyze changes occurred in land use.

Results showed the shift fromdeforestation to reforestation. Hence, no improvement was observed in thatperiod (Balthazar et al., 2015).

Over the last 15 years there has beenconsiderable advancement in the development of ecosystem services and theirvaluation(Toledo,2017).Protected areas play an important role in theconservation of an ecosystem and biodiversity.(Juffe-Bignoliet al. 2014; Masciaet al.

2014;Palomoet al. 2014).Some Conservationists have argued for theeffective management and designation of protected areas and other criticalsites for biodiversity conservation. They also focused on such   areas for conservation as these providessignificant benefits which could be attributed in monetary value (Balmford; Fisheret al. 2014).Natural ecosystems are mostly degradedthrough anthropogenic activities. This degradation is caused by changes in anecosystem which directly have influence on the inherent properties of anecosystem leading to a change in welfare of human communities that are gainingbenefits (Robinsonet al., 2013; Van Oudenhoven et al.

, 2012).Forest also provides a service of runoffprevention by absorbing water in soil aggregates. Soil erosion is thedestruction of soil aggregates and transportation of sediments which lead tohave major consequences (Anasiru et al., 2013).Human induced activities areresulting devastating changes in topsoil. A study has shown the minimum amountof soil loss from the land use of permanent vegetation. Moreover, no differencein soil retention service was observed on forest, shrub and grassland (Guo, etal.

, 2015). In 2013, a research analyzed the economic value of soil runoff oncultivated dry lands in Indonesia. Majors study focus was on loss of soilfertility. Soil loss was estimated by the cost of fertilizer involving urea,KCL and sp-36 (Anasiru et al.

, 2013).Ecosystemsplays an important role in regulating climate of earth by maintaining thebalance of greenhouse gases such as by adding or removing CO2 from atmosphere..

Managing landscapes for carbon storage and sequestration requires informationabout how much and where carbon is stored. Trees are autotrophic in nature which means they do not compete with animalsfor food and make their own food by photosynthesis. Forests are the very largearsenal of carbon on earth, and have been covering one out of three parts ofthe land area which have been accumulating up to 80% of continental abovegroundcarbon and 40% of soil’s belowground carbon (Baskent & Keles, 2009; Ellisonet al.

, 2011).     Conclusoin:Naturalecosystems are being destroyed by anthropogenic activities at an alarming rate.The main reasons for this degradation are an increase in demand for ecosystemservice’s including food, fuel, fodder, timber and fresh water.

It is importantto valuate forests ecologically and economically so that priority forconservation would be given and will help in decision making. Although somemodels and methods have formed for the valuation of ecosystem services butthere are still improvement is required.                    References:·        agerholm, N.

, Käyhkö, N., Ndumbaro,F., Khamis, M., 2012. Community stakeholders’ knowledge in landscape assessments– Mapping indicators for landscape services. Ecol. Indic. 18, 421–433.

·        MEA (Millennium ecosystem assessment)2005.Ecosystem and human well-being. A report of the millennium ecosystemuniversity press, Washington. DC.

·        Nowak,D.J., Walton J.T., Stevens J.C.

, Crane D.E., and. Hoehn R.E. 2008.

Effect ofplot and sample size on timing and precision of urban forest assessments.Arboriculture and Urban Forestry 34:386–390.·        Polasky,S., Calderone, G., Duarte, T., Goldstein, J., Hannahs, N.

, Ricketts, T.,Tallis, H.,2011. Putting ecosystem service models to work: conservation,management and trade-offs.·        Bai, Y.,Zhuang, C., Ouyang, Z., Zheng, H.

, Jiang, B., 2011. Spatial characteristicsbetween biodiversity and ecosystem services in a human-dominated watershed.Ecol.

Complex. 8, 177–183.·        Tallis,H.T., Ricketts, T., Nelson, E.

, Ennaanay, D., Wolny, S., Olwero, N., Vigerstol,K., Pennington, D., Mendoza, G., Aukema, J., Foster, J.

, Forrest, J., Cameron,D., Lonsdorf, E., Kennedy, C., 2010.

InVEST 1.005 beta User’s Guide. TheNatural Capital Project, Stanford.·        Butchart,S.H., Walpole, M.

, Collen, B., van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J.P., Almond, R.

E.,Baillie, J.E., Bomhard, B., Brown, C., Bruno, J., Carpenter, K.

E., Carr, G.M.,Chanson, J., Chenery, A.M.

, Csirke, J., Davidson, N.C., Dentener, F., Foster,M., Galli, A., Galloway, J.

N., Genovesi, P., Gregory, R.D., Hockings, M.,Kapos, V.

, Lamarque, J.F., Leverington, F., Loh, J., McGeoch, M.A.

, McRae, L.,Minasyan, A., Hernández Morcillo, M.

, Oldfield, T.E., Pauly, D.

, Quader, S.,Revenga, C., Sauer, J.R.

, Skolnik, B., Spear, D., Stanwell-Smith, D.

, Stuart,S.N., Symes, A., Tierney, M., Tyrrell, T.D., Vié, J.C.

, Watson, R., 2010.Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science 328 (5982),1164–1168.·        Duffy,J.E., 2009. Why biodiversity is important to the functioning of real-worldecosystems.

Front. Ecol. Environ. 7, 437–444.·        TEEB,2009. TEEB for national and international policy makers.

In: Summary:Responding to the Value of Nature. United Nations Environment Programme,Geneva.·        R.S.

 DeGroot, M. Wilson, R. BoumansA typology for the description, classification and valuation of ecosystemfunctions, goods and services Ecological Economics, 41 (2002),pp. 393-408·        Turpie,J. K., Forsythe, K. J.

, Knowles, A., Blignaut, J., & Letley, G.

(2017).Mapping and valuation of South Africa’s ecosystem services: A localperspective. Ecosystem Services.

Baskent, E. Z., & Kele?, S. (2009).

Developing alternative forest management planning strategies incorporatingtimber, water and carbon values: an examination of their interactions. EnvironmentalModeling & Assessment,14(4),

x

Hi!
I'm Morris!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out