AbstractTheincreasing food requirements are constantly being fulfilled by bakery industry.
Bakery products belong to the most eaten food categories of the world. Almost,every nook and corner of the world uses baked items as its food daily. Thismotivated us to study various factors related to bakery products and all theingredients that are used in bakery. Consumption patterns may vary based ongeographical locations and personal interests. A consumer must not only knowthe taste, palatability, aesthetic value but also must have knowledge aboutnutritional composition, health benefits and shelf lives of different bakeryproducts. Some know how ofingredients is also necessary for consumers to be able to understand theirintended use and individual role in preparation of bakery products.
This reviewstudy of various literary articles and sources along with some qualitative andquantitative analysis will explain important aspects of bakery products andingredients.Keywords: Bread, Cakes, Biscuits, BakeryIntroductionBakeryproducts are the integral part of meals in some countries. (Hemraj 2014).
Inall developed countries, baking industry consists of four segments: retail,wholesale, instore and food service. The backbone of this industry are wholesalebakeries. Aretail bakery is a low-volume bakery, where various baked items are producedand sold to the consumers at the same place. Whole-grain and multigrain breadsare also being offered by many retail bakeries but bakery consumers’preferences depend upon flavours.Thereare three segments in wholesale baking industry: cake, bread and relatedproducts, frozen bakery products and crackers and cookies.
A wholesale bakeryis typically equipped with extensive production facilities and its productsreach consumers through retail bakeries or retail locations, e.g. grocerystores and food stores.
(Jose et al, 2013) In-storebakeries are mostly found in grocery stores and are relatively smaller butoffer a wide range of fresh bakery products, with increasing amounts of whole-grainbreads being produced in them.Bakeditems in the food service sectors are those served in cafeterias andrestaurants and they are generally produced by a wholesale bakery. Due tovarying work hours and life habits, consumers have no time to cook or bake; so,they prefer buying baked goods from a bakery. (Cauvain and Young, 2006) Theingredients are mixed up to make products, the reviewed details of ingredientsare as follows;Thefollowing is a detail of all the baking ingredients and a description of thefunctions each ingredient performs in bakery products. Varying the amounts ofingredients in a recipe, changes the flavour and texture of the finishedproduct. FLOURS Thestructure in baked goods is provided by flour. Wheat flour contains proteins that interact with each other whenmixed with water, forming gluten.
It is this elastic gluten network whichstretches to contain the expanding leavening gases e.g. CO2, duringrising of dough. The protein content of a flour affects the dough strength. Thedifferent wheat flour types contain varying amounts of the gluten formingproteins are Hard wheat, that has a high protein content. Soft wheat, that hasless protein. In yeast breads, a strong gluten framework is always desirable,but in cakes, quick breads and pastries, a high protein flour results in atough product. (Sharon and Julie 1994)Bread flour is a hard wheat flour with about 12 percent proteincontent.
As the dough it produces has more gluten than dough made with otherflours, bread flour is used for yeast raised bread. A light loaf with goodvolume is produced by sufficient gluten amounts. Slices are held together,rather than crumbled. Cake flour is a soft wheat flour that has 7.
5 percent proteincontent. The lower gluten content gives products a tender, more crumbly texturethat is desirable in cakes. All purpose flour is blended during milling for achieving aprotein content of 10.5 percent.
This medium protein flour can be used for allbaking purposes. If all-purpose flour in place of cake flour in a recipe isused, substitute 1 cup minus 2 tsps. all-purpose flour for 1 cup cakeflour. Whole wheat flour may be replaced for part of the white flour in makingof yeast and quick bread, but it will reduce the volume of the finished product.Whole wheat flour contains the wholesome germ and bran as well as the endospermof the wheat kernels.
Duringmixing and kneading of bread dough, bran particles cut through the gluten, resultingin a smaller, heavier loaf. If replacing a very coarsely ground whole wheatflour with all purpose flour, use 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons whole wheat flourfor every cup of all purpose flour. To substitute whole wheat flour in a whitebread recipe, use half whole wheat and half bread flour for the bestresults. Wheat germ, though not a flour, it is often used to replace partof the flour in recipes for flavour and fiber. Protein, vitamins, minerals, andpolyunsaturated fats are concentrated in the germ of grain kernels.
Preferablytoasted, wheat germ can be used in place of up to 1/3 of the flour in arecipe. Thefollowing non-wheat grain products are often used in bakery industry. They arerich in protein but most of them do not have the potential for developinggluten. For this reason, at least 1 cup of wheat flour should be used for every1 cup of non-wheat flour so that the product will not become too heavy. Rye flour is mostly used in combination with wheat flour formaking breads. (Iuliana et al 2011) Without loss of volume, Light rye flour canbe successfully replaced with 40 percent of wheat flour in a recipe. It isadvisable that medium and dark rye flours should be limited to 30 percent and20 percent, respectively, of the total amount of floor. Triticale flour is a hybrid produced by an intergeneric cross betweenthe cereals, wheat and rye.
(G. R. 1976). It has an average protein content a bit higherthan that of wheat flour.
Triticale flour has better handling properties inyeast bread dough, rather than rye flour because it will form gluten, but doesnot handle as well as does the wheat dough. For a better quality dough, fermentyeast dough made with triticale flour for a shorter period than wheat flour doughis recommended.Oat flour It has a relatively high protein content which is 17percent, but it does not form gluten. Oat flour can be replaced with as much as1/3rd of wheat flour in breads. Corn meal is coarsely ground dried corn.
(Sharon and Julie1994). Corn flour is more finely ground form of corn. Corn meal and corn flour contain7-8 percent protein on a dry basis. Both of them do not form gluten. One canavoid a grainy texture in cornbread by mixing the cornmeal with liquid of theirrecipe, bringing to boiling and cooling before mixing with other ingredients. Rice flour has about 6-7 protein and it does not form gluten.For gluten intolerant people, rice flour is a better and acceptable substitutefor wheat, barley, rye or oat floursPotato starch flour, is an another non-gluten flour is usually used incombination with other flours to form products. (Sharon and Julie 1994).
Soy flour contains 50 percent protein and it is used primarilyto enhance the protein content of baked products. Soy flour is gluten andstarch free. If used in large amounts, affects the taste of baked items and causesthem to brown quickly. SWEETENERS Sucrose,(table sugar) has many functions in food other than providing sweetness. Insmall amounts, added sugar helps yeast begin producing gas for raising yeastdough.
(Charley 1986). Large sugar amount slows yeast fermentation; Therising time is longer in a very sweet dough. Sugar makes the dough and batterproducts tender and helps the baked goods in browning.
Sweetened breads retainmoisture efficiently than unsweetened breads. It is the sugar in cookie doughthat causes spreading to occur during baking. Reducing the amount of sugar bymore than 1/3 results in loss of tenderness, moisture, browning, and sweetness.( McGee 1984). When sugar is reduced, the volume may increase in a bread recipeFructose is twice sweeter than sucrose and is also moreexpensive.
Fructose sweetened products tend to be moist because it attractsmore water. Baked products made with fructose are darker than those made withsucrose. Honey contains fructose. It has a distinctive flavour. Use3/4 cup plus 1 tablespoon honey in place of 1 cup sugar and reduce the otherliquid ingredients by 2 tablespoons. Too much browning is caused in products ifamount of honey is too much. (Sharon and Julie 1994) Molasses imparts a dark colour and strong flavour to bakedfoods. It is not as sweet as sugar.
When using molasses as a substitute, use1-1/3 cups molasses for 1 cup sugar and reduce the amount of liquid in therecipe by 5 tsps. Because it is more acidic than sugar, it is has a limitedapplication in bakery.Thefollowing artificial sweeteners are available for both commercial and home use.They provide sweetness to homemade foods but lack the browning, tenderizing,and moisture retaining characteristics provided by sugar. Because the differentlow-calorie sweeteners vary in sweetness and bulk, package directions must befollowed for the amount to be used.Saccharin is a noncaloric, heat stable sweetener that, isalmost 300 times more sweeter than sucrose in its pure form. (Priebemand Kauffman 1980). Bulking agents are added to saccharin productsto aid in measuring.
Saccharin has a bitter aftertaste. Acesulfame K is a very low-calorie sweetener that is 200 timessweeter than sucrose. Because of Itsheat stability, it can be used in baked products. In baked products, use it incombination with granulated sugar for improved texture.
It has no unpleasantaftertaste. Aspartame is not heat stable so, it is not a suitable sweetenerfor baked goods. (Sharon and Julie 1994) SALT Mainrole of salt is to improve the sweetness and flavours of other ingredients infood. If salt is absent or reduced, other spices or flavourings in the recipeshould be slightly increased. In yeast dough, salt slows down the process of yeastfermentation. Decreasing the amount ofsalt in yeast dough can cause the dough to rise too quickly, which adverselyaffects the shape and flavour of bread. (Sharon and Julie, 1994)LEAVENING AGENTS Baking powder carries baking soda and a right amount of acid toreact with.
Batters rise twice that are made with double acting baking powder;when dry and moist ingredients are mixed, and again when product is baked. Baking Soda acts as a gas leavening agent when combined withacidic ingredients e.g. vinegar, lemon juice, molasses etc. The volume of cookies,cakes, breads, and some candies is directly proportional to the amount ofbaking soda added to the batter or dough. Reducing the amount of soda withoutreplacing it with another leavening agent will decrease the volume of thefinished products.