After the loss of the Thirteen Colonies in1783, the United Kingdom found compensations in India.

It took the Dutch Capeof Good Hope in 1806, Ceylon in 1815, then acquired Malaysia in 1824, Aden in1839, New Zealand in 1840, Hong Kong in 1841 with the treaty of Nanking and theend of the first Opium War (Hoe; Roebuck 1999:203), anddeveloped the colonization of Australia. Made cautious by the US precedent,Britain granted the fact of independence in Canada, predominantly Anglo-Saxon,it was transformed into a dominion in 1867, attached to the crown by a personalunion link (Porter1999:187).The same policy was later pursued withregard to other territories with a large European population, this will becalled the Commonwealth.This first half of the nineteenth century ispunctuated by a significant expansion in Asia thanks to the trade of tea andcotton, who became more important than spices, particularly in India, Malaysiaand especially China during the two opium wars between 1839 to 1842 and 1856and 1860 that forced China to open to the westerners 

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