As Thus, a greater understanding of the antecedents

establishments continue to face uncertainty, through increasing growth in
technology, shifting economic challenges, and a move to a global economy;
understanding work behaviours of the industry players are becoming more
indispensable. Experts and intellectuals have advocated the importance of
observing organizational participants as dynamic agents, who are able to
participate in proactive work behaviours that enable positive changes in
themselves and their workplace (Grant & Ashford, 2008; Grant, Parker &
Collins, 2009). Employees are not just inert dummies of their workplace;
instead, they can make deliberate choices to succeed in hostile and uncertain
work settings (Cameron & Lavine, 2006). The attention in extra-role
behaviours is somewhat because they have been mostly associated with several
encouraging workplace results (Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff & Blume,
2009). Despite the benefits associated with the exhibition of extra-role,
Morrison & Phelps, 1999 argued that the narrow conceptualization of
extra-role behaviour has limited the examination and therefore called for a
rigorous review of the concept. The scholars defined taking charge as
“voluntary and constructive efforts by individual employees to effect
organizationally functional change with respect to how work is executed within
the contexts of their jobs, work units, or organizations” (Morrison &
Phelps, 1999). These positive consequences of taking charge demonstrate the
possible influence that proactive work behaviours may have within the workplace
context. Thus, a greater understanding of the antecedents of this extra-role
behaviour is further warranted, particularly within the Nigerian workspace.

to Ukachukwu & Iherionhamma (2013), many contemporary organizations have
people of multi-cultural backgrounds working together as employees which may be
a probable basis of the administrative skirmish. Nigeria is one of the most
populous developing African country and splendidly gifted with rich resources,
both human and minerals. However, most of the pecuniary drawbacks of the
country may be to the apparent inability of governments and private sector
organizations to achieve optimally. People’s actions could pose a threat to
performance and ultimate progress. Therefore, a deliberate attempt at
understanding workplace diversity is very integral to the survival of the
organization.  Individuals tend to
develop a lot of individualities across each stage of their personal and
occupational existence. Through this state, according to Ugwuzor, (2014), they
often tend to see themselves with respect to their religion, ethnicity, gender,
age, professional or educational background and therefore manifest their
differences across various circumstances

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these diversities wrongly can be disadvantageous to the employee productivity
as well job satisfaction as well going above and beyond when the time calls for
taking charge. This is because organizational members who feel more valued
commit more to their job while the group that consider themselves as sectional
assembly feel less valued leading to lesser performance. Again, diversity in
the personality disposition and other dimensions of diversity could also affect
employee behavioural outcomes (Afolabi & Omole, 2011).  Consequently, administrators will need to
know a wide range of behaviours to bring out the best in the distinctive
competencies of the workforce.


the term “workplace diversity” in the researcher’s framework can be defined as
comparisons and variances among employees in terms of age, ethnicity, gender,
and education background. However, when an employee chooses to change his or
her working environment, they must face the changes in values in the work
environment. This is because the employee must learn the new language and adapt
to different cultural beliefs that have long embed within the people in the
working environment.


in adapting (Brown, 2008) concept of diversity in the workplace, this study
seeks to explore its variable influence of ethnicity, education background
gender and age and on the employee taking charge in the public service which
comes with varied employees in a package. 
Able scholars of Nigerian descent (Adeleye, Atewologun. and Matanmi,
2014), in their review of the historical and contemporary developments in
equality and diversity posited that, although Nigeria is one of the most
diverse countries in the world, with multiplicities, key stakeholders such as
the government, organizations, organizational psychologists and academia do not
appear to take it as a serious priority. This, in our opinion, cannot be
farther than realism.


the light of the contemporary certainties businesses grapple with nowadays, it
may be contingent that workplace diversity could generate opportunities as well
as present challenges for the working and behaviour of organizations. In
Nigeria, a Nation with several ethnic nationalities and languages, as well as
diverse cultural and religious backgrounds, the issue of proper workforce
diversity management should even be more important to managers


1.1    Research Background


key objective of this study is to investigate the factors that affect
employees’ taking charge behaviour within the Nigerian workspace. It
distinguishes the factors that can affect employees’ taking charge behaviour by
mainly focusing on the components of workplace diversity. This research would
also investigate the moderating role of job security in taking charge.


than that, the purpose is to develop a methodology that can be applied to the
analysis of workplace diversity towards employee taking charge behaviour.


purpose of this study is to inspect how some elements of workplace diversity
can potentially affect employee taking charge. Firstly, a brief review of the
factors such as ethnicity, gender, age and education background will be
embarked upon. Secondly, past research findings on workplace diversity will be
summarized and applied to taking charge at work. The moderating role of
perceived job insecurity will also be explored. Then, the result of an
empirical study, which examines issues related to workplace diversity and
employees proactive work behaviours will be broadly x-rayed.



1.2     Problem Statement


recent years questions have been raised on the reasons why employees and even
managers especially in Nigeria are hardly willing to take charge in the
workplace despite the benefits of doing so. Recently, researchers who have
begun investigating the possible reasons to this question have advocated that
more contextual and individual variables be examined, specifically within the
Nigerian work environment (Onyishi & Ogbodo, 2012) to encourage the
behaviour.     In this study therefore,
attempt will be made to provide answers and expand the taking charge concept
which according to Morrison and Phleps (1999), is a response to the
shortcomings of overly narrow conceptualization of extra role behaviours that
has mainly focused on helping contemporaries, being punctual, and attending to
non-required work functions, as opposed to more extensive behaviours embedded
in a desire to help one’s organization develop, advance, and improve (Moon, et
al., 2005).


understanding the impacts of diversity on organizational consequences, such as
taking charge and efficiency has become indispensable. Even though there are
concerted efforts to invest in workforce diversity management to boost employee
morale and performance, organizations rarely achieve their expected benefits in
advanced countries. This cannot be said of Nigeria is because the promotion of
taking charge behaviour as well as workforce diversity is also very low among
Nigerian institutions given that diversity initiatives have no basis in law in
most of the organizations (Adeleye, Atewologun and Matanmi, 2014).


1.3    Proposed Research Objectives


a better understanding of the antecedents of an employee taking charge and its
relationship with all the components of workplace diversity.


1.3.1    General Objective


first goal of this study is to offer insights and detailed understanding of the
workplace diversity that will affect taking charge in an organization.
Secondly, the purpose of this research is to identify whether the variables
include gender, age, ethnicity and education background would affect taking
charge in an organization. Lastly, the specific objectives of this research are
as follows:


Investigate the relationship of gender towards taking charge in an

Investigate the relationship of age towards taking charge in an organization.

Investigate the relationship of ethnicity towards taking charge in an

Investigate the relationship of education background towards taking charge in
an organization.

Investigate the impact of independent variables towards the dependent variable.

Investigate which independent variable has greater influence on the dependent

Investigate the mediating role of perceived job security on workplace diversity
and taking charge


1.4    Research Questions

 The research questions of this proposed study


What is the relationship between gender and taking charge?

What is the relationship between age and taking charge?

What is the relationship between ethnicity and taking charge?

What is the relationship between educational background and taking charge?

What is the relationship between workplace diversity and taking charge?

What are the factors affecting taking charge behaviour in the Nigerian public

What are the factors affecting taking charge s in private sector-led

What is the mediating role of job insecurity in taking charge and workplace


Hypothesis of the Study


this proposed study, taking charge is our dependent variables. Meanwhile,
gender, age, ethnicity and education background will be our independent
variables. Thus, our hypothesis is that there is the significant relationship
between these dependent variables and independent variables. Either one of
these independent variables or some of them does have the positive effect to
influence taking charge in an organization. Jon insecurity will be reviewed as
a possible moderating variable


There is significant relationship between gender and taking charge

There is significant relationship between age diversity and taking charge

There is significant relationship between ethnicity and taking charge

There is significant relationship between educational background and taking

The four variables (gender, age, ethnicity, and educational background) are significant
in explaining the variance in taking charge.


Knowledge Gap


a multi-ethnic country like Nigeria, there is need to be more thoughtful
research efforts on approaches to encourage taking charge behaviour by managing
workforce diversity if apprehensions over ethnicity and gender imbalance in the
workplace are going to be limited before they detonate and become human rights
problems. So far, many studies have been done in the field of workforce
diversity management in Nigeria focusing on the challenges of managing diverse
workforce, equity, inclusion, corporate performance, effects of workplace
diversity management on organizational effectiveness (Ugwuzor, 2014; Ukachukwu
& Iheriohanma, 2013; Adeleye, Atewologun and Matanmi, 2014). Some conducted
these research with a local perspective, however, there is no research that has
been done on the effect of the various components of workforce diversity on
extra-role behaviour, particularly, taking charge. The strategies adopted by
these researchers clearly leaves a vacuum to be filled with the role of the
workplace diversity as it relates to the employee going above and beyond at
their workplace in Nigeria.  Ugwuzor,
2014, in his study of workforce management and corporate performance of firms
in Nigeria has advocated that more studies should be conducted in the Nigerian
Civil Service. This study, therefore, seeks to bridge the gap by reviewing
variables that are largely voluntary but play the integral role in the survival
of an organization. Also, a cursory look at possible mediating factors such as
job insecurity will be explored.


Scope of the Study


study will focus on finding approaches for managing workforce diversity in
Nigerian public service. The framework will seek to evaluate the attitudes that
tend to encourage taking charge of the employees in these organizations.

research focuses on major establishments in Nigeria picked based on how diverse
they are in terms of ethnicity, gender, cultural background, education and age.
A review of organizational activities of corporations to identify the
strategies they use for managing their workforce diversities will also be


Conceptual Framework


study will attempt to explore workforce diversity across various sectors in
Nigeria. Personnel in an organization is the demographic and cultural/social
unit whose diversity can affect the organization’s performance. The dependent
variable for this paper, therefore, is taking charge.


various components of workforce diversity which includes; ethnicity, gender,
cultural background, education and age put in place as measures of a diverse
workforce are the independent variables.


the relationship between taking charge and the components of workforce
diversity will be explored. Job insecurity was proposed as a plausible
moderator. In addition, there is a strong need for the examination of
contextual antecedents of positive work behaviours.

this study offers timely contributions to the literature on the extra-role
behaviour of taking charge and workplace diversity, which are currently
flourishing. It attempts to bridge these two important and popular streams of


2.    Theoretical Framework

following theories will be reviewed:

i.    Expectancy theory (Victor Vroom, 1964)

ii.    Attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969/1982)

iii.    Social exchange theory (Peter Blau, 1964)

iv.    Leader-Member Exchange Theory (Graen, Haga
& Dansereau, 1975)

v.    Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan,

vi.    Goal-setting theory (Locke & Latham,

vii.    Realistic Conflict Theory and viii.    Social Identity Theory)


theories link workforce diversity and extra-role performance. However, this
study will rely heavily on the Realistic Conflict Theory (RCT and Social
Identity theory. Workplace diversity in any corporate entity is valuable to the
performance of the organization given the varied abilities of the individuals
involved. Diversity is also tough to handle as failure to manage diversity can
distress the economic and social well-being of an organization, be they public
or private sector driven. When people feel isolated or discriminated against,
their efficiency is typically lowered. Other attendant implications could also
be segregation, truancy, indiscipline, rebellion, low level of taking charge
behaviour amongst others. Globally, organizations of varying sizes have begun
to develop strategies for ensuring smooth day-to-day business management and
good relations among their workforce by enhancing accountability for diversity
at the workplace. This hasn’t been the case in Nigeria, nonetheless.


diversity integrates various groups of people who work together and there are
several theories that try to explain the concept of intergroup relations that
are relevant to organizations’ workforce. These models bring out the questions
that are relevant to workforce particularly when they are characterized into
diverse groups carried by cultural, gender, educational background and even
intellectual disparity. This study will base its opinions on two theories;
first, the realistic conflict theory (RCT) which postulates that people’s acts
are driven by their self-interests whereby conflicts can arise between
different people or groups due to the ambition of maximizing their own or
groups benefits at the expense of others (Sherif, 1966). When applied to
workforce diversity, employees in different levels can act to defend their
interests at the workplace with the consequence of conflicts in the long run.
This can lead to an unhealthy rivalry that comes in from discrimination and
bias that arises.

identity theory (Tajfel, 1982) is another vital theory that elucidates
intergroup relations. This theory hypothesizes that people tend to categorize
themselves into social groups that must mean for them and this shape the way
individuals interrelate with others from their own identity group and from
other groups. Social identity stems from the knowledge of an individual that
they belong to a certain group. This classification may stem from the aspects
that are related to a group formation making others fall in a group they would
wish not to be associated with. At the workplace, such labelling can lead to
exclusion in which some folks are left out of some events by the virtue of
being part of a certain group. According to (Larkey, 1996), to support this,
with the conflict theory, self-interest becomes the motivation for prohibiting
certain individuals or groups from accessing valuable resources and power.
Those who belong to groups with advanced perceived social status will admit and
include people they consider to be like them while excluding and be selective
of those they perceive to be dissimilar from them.


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