China’s Chinese grand designs in the IOR. (d)

China’s Interest in the IOR.   China has diverse interests in IOR which are enumerated below:-(a) Economic and Energy Security.  Increase in production has made China the world’s biggest consumer of energy. Inadequate production of oil domestically has increased its import manifolds and to sustain the economic growth, China has diversified its sources of crude oil imports through sea in recent years. China in near future will import approximately 66% of its total oil by 2020 and 72% by 2040.(b) Security of SLOC. Today almost 80% of energy import of China transship through SLOCs in IOR. The traditional and non- traditional threat such as piracy along with regional instability adds to the vulnerability of these SLOCs. To counter these threats, China is enlarging its footprint in IOR so that it can import energy resources in a protected manner without any disruption.(c) Containment of India.   Today China and India are the two fastest growing economies in the world and unfortunately both being neighbors are eyeing for regional power status in Asia. Both have their common interest in IOR. China in order to gain supremacy over India will contain India both economically and geopolitically, since India is the only regional nation that can pose a threat to Chinese grand designs in the IOR.  (d) Choke pts. Almost 80% of oil reaching China mainly passes through three vital chokepoints in IOR which are Gulf of Aden, Strait of Hormuz & Malacca. Malacca strait being the most vital and vulnerable choke point for China is widely known as Malacca dilemma for China. China has certain key concerns pertaining to the Malacca straits which is the interdiction of oil shipment bound to China by US either independently or in collaboration with India & Japan thereby curtailing the rise of China & the critical concern of ANC in close proximity to Malacca straits.(e) Counter US Threat.    Despite losing slight grip over world affairs US is still a military super power of the world and a potent threat to China’s rise as global power. US has immense economical, political and diplomatic interest in the IOR. China’s interests in the IOR are also to counter threat from US military presence which is detrimental/ hindrance to its rise as global power.India’s Interest in IOR. 7. IOR is always and will be considered as backyard of India. Any influence of extra regional power will be perceived as threat to India’s national interest. India’s interest in IOR is as enumerated below:-(a) Economic and Energy Security.   India today is aspiring to become a regional power and in future a super power. To carry out its economic growth at a faster pace India needs constant and cheap energy which is inadequate domestically. India is presently the fourth largest importer of oil and coal which is required to meet its energy requirements & is imported predominantly from gulf countries. Securing energy requirement for its economic growth from the countries in IOR is likely to be a reason of conflict in future with China.(b) Security of SLOCs/ Unblocking Choke Points.    Major portion of India’s trade transship through SLOCs in IOR. It is imperative for India to provide a secure and safe sea route to own shipments for nation’s economic prosperity. Strait of Hormuz is one significant choke point which is vital for India’s sea trade and being closer to Pakistan India needs to take all necessary measures to allow unimpeded transshipment through it.(c) Military Threat.   As already stated, presence of any extra regional powers in the IOR is considered as grave military threat. India aspiring to become a regional power will not accept obstruction of any country in IOR.(d) EEZ. India has vast EEZ along its coast line in IOR. The safety and security of these EEZ and various offshore assets which are also sources of crude oil and other natural resources are of prime consequence to India. 


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