Countless remedies against catarrh, while the root-bark and

Countless
traditional medicinal values of
leaves, bark, fruit and seed of A.
muricata have been recently emphasized. The puree of bark,
root, seed or leaf  is the most commonly
used method in traditional medicine and its applications are far reaching. The
addition of leaves decoction is used as analgesic (pain-relieving) and to treat
cold, flu and asthma; and to treat cutaneous (external) and internal parasites
can be treated. It’s known that use of these leaves is majorly helpful in the
treatment of Malaria. Diarrhea, heart and liver diseases are treated with the
juice made by the fruit which is used as galactogoge. It also works against intestinal
parasites. In the tropical areas, number of sufferings such as fever,
torment, respiratory and skin disease, bacterial infections, hypertension,
aggravation, diabetes and cancer were considered to be treated by therapeutic
qualities of A. muricata. There have been a number of reports on the
ethno-medical uses of A.
muricata leaves including
treatments for hypertension, diabetes and cancer. Most parts of
the A. muricata tree, similar to that of
the other Annona species, namely A.
squamosa and A. reticulata are
widely used as local and habitual medicines contrary to a large number of human
inflamations, infections and disorders. The pulp of the fruit is used as
natural medicine for joint pains, dysentery, neuralgia, diarrhea, rheumatism,
fever, malaria, parasites, skin rushes and worms, and also is eaten to increase
mother’s milk after parturition. Cystitis, body aches and diabetes can be cured
by the leaves. Also, the leaf’s decoction is known to display anti-rheumatic
and neuralgic effects. In addition, the cooked leaves are topically used to
treat abscesses and rheumatism that was reported by de Sousa OVand
colleagues.(9)

The crushed seeds are thought to have anthelmintic
activities antaagonistic to external and internal worms. In tropical Africa,
the plant is employed as an astringent pesticide, and insecticide; along this
it is used to treat coughs, pain and skin diseases. In India, the fruit and
flower are used as remedies against catarrh, while the root-bark and leaves are
well known to have an anti phlogistic and anthelmintic activities which was
worked upon
by Adewole SO, Ojewole J.(2)

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In
Malaysia, the crude extract of A. muricata and A.
squamosais used as a syrup on the head to buffer from fainting. In South
America and tropical Africa, including Nigeria, leaves of A.muricata are
implemented as an ethnomedicine opposed to tumors and cancer. Moreover, the
smooth muscle relaxant, hypotensive hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, sedative,
and antispasmodic effects accredit to the leaves, barks and roots of A.
muricata. Moreover along with the ethnomedicinal uses, the fruits
are widely employed for the preparation of beverages, ice creams,and syrups (3, 21, 23, 26) .

 

1.   
Phytoconstituents:

Over
200 chemical compounds  have been
documented and isolated from this plant; out of which the most prominent
compounds are the alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids and acetogenins. Based on the
in vitro studies, extracts and phytochemicals of A. muricata have been sorted out as anti-microbial,
anti-inflammatory, anti-protozoan, antioxidant, insecticide, larvicide, and cytotoxic to tumor cells. Researches on the
extracts and isolated compounds of A.
muricata suggested contraceptive, antitumor, anti-ulceric, wound healing,
hepato-protective, anxiolytic, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, anti-icteric and
hypoglycemic activities. To amplify the hypoglycemic activity of the ethanolic
extracts of A. muricata leaves,
various clinical studies were conducted. 
Cytotoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-nociception and hypotensive
activities are analyzed and developed by mechanisms of action of a few
pharmacological activities. Although, some phytochemical compounds isolated
from A. muricata have shown a
neurotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo. Hence, to define the magnitude of the
effects, optimal dosage, long-term safety, and potential side effects,
additional studies on these crude extracts and isolated compounds should be
carried out. (32)

Constant examinations on diverse parts
of the A. muricata have shown the
occurrence of varieties of phyto constituents and compounds, including flavonoltriglycosides
(FTGs) alkaloids (ALKs), phenolics (PLs), megastigmanes (MGs), cyclopeptides
(CPs) and essential oils. The existence of various minerals such as Ca, Na, Fe,
K, Cu and Mg imply that regular intake of the A. muricata fruit can help furnish essential nutrients to the
human body. However, Annona species,
including A. muricata, have been
shown to be a vital source of annonaceousacetogenin compounds (AGEs). Almost
all the parts inclusive of the fruits, leaves, stems and
roots of this plant are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloids
and annonaceousacetogenins. (23,25,26,28,35,42)

Long chain (C-32/C34) fatty acids in the polyketide
pathway give rise to Acetogenins, a unique category of C-35/C37 secondary
metabolites. It is explained by combining fatty acids with  2-propanol unit at C-2 that gives a
methyl-substituted ?, ?-unsaturated ?-lactone. After 1982,a number of acetogenins
are identified with the discovery of uvaricin from Uvariaaccuminata 
. About 500 have been reported from numerous parts of the plants in the Annonaceae
family. In recent times, AGEs have drawn significant scientific interest due to
the remarkable structures and broad spectrum of biological activities.. The
active annonaceousacetogenins have shown to be successful in inducing death in
cancer cells that are resistant to even chemotherapeutic drugs. It is found
that these annonaceous acetogenins aids to 
debilitating side effects such as neurotoxicity which results in easy
traverse of the blood-brain barrier and causes a typical Parkinson’s disease.
This inhibits the growth of new drug entities. Various biological activities
have been reported for AGEs, including antimalarial, anti-parasitic and
pesticidal activities. Yet, the toxicity against cancer cells and inhibitions
of the mitochondrial complex I are initially influenced by the physiological
activities of AGEs . (11)

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