Emilie du ChateletEmilie du Chatelet grew up in a society where there were not manyeducation opportunities for women. She was born in Paris on December 17, 1706and grew up in a household where marriage was the only way one could improvetheir place in society. During her early childhood, Emilie began to show suchpromise in the area of academics that soon she was able to convince her fatherthat she was a genius who needed attention. Provided with good education, shestudied and soon mastered Latin, Italian and English. She also studied Tasso,Virgil, Milton and other great scholars of the time.
In spite of her talents in the area of languages, her true love wasmathematics. Her study in this area was encouraged be a family friend, M. deMezieres, who recognized her talent. Emilie’s work in mathematics was rarelyoriginal or as captivating as that of other female mathematicians but it wassubstantive.At the age of nineteen she married Marquis du Chatelet. During thefirst two years of their marriage, Emilie gave birth to a boy and a girl, andlater at the age of 27 the birth of another son followed. Neither the childrenor her husband deterred her from fully grasping and indulging in the social lifeof the court.
Some of Emilie’s most significant work came from the period she spentwith Voltaire, one of the most intriguing and brilliant scholars of this time,at Cirey-sur-Blaise. For the two scholars this was a safe and quiet placedistant from the turbulence of Paris and court life. She started studying theworks of Leibniz but she then started to analyze the discoveries of Newton. Shewas extremely success in translating his whole book on the principals ofmathematics into French. She also added to this book an “AlgebraicalCommentary” which very few general readers understood.To realize the significance of her work for future French scholars it isimportant to understand the social context within which she lived and worked.
One of Emilie’s most significant tutors was Pierre Louis de Maupertuis, a renownmathematician and astronomer of the time. The struggle for success did not comeeasy even for Emilie. As a student her curiosity and unrelentedness caused herto place impossible demands on her tutors. Such nature caused her to engage indispute with her tutor at the time, Samuel Koenig. Their dispute was about thesubject of the infinitely small which ended their friendship.In 1740 when Emilie’s book Institutions de physique was published,Koenig started a rumor that the work was merely a rehash of his lessons with her.
Of course this mad Emilie very angry and for help she turned to the Academy ofSciences and Maupertuis, with whom she had discussed there ideas long before sheengaged Koenig as her tutor. The intelligent scientists of the time were awareof her capabilities of performing the work. However she did not feel that shehad received the support she deserved. This was the first time that she feltthat being a woman really worked against her.
The years Emilie spent with Voltaire at Cirey were some of the mostproductive years of her life. Their scholarly work was very intense. Whenthere were no guests both of them stayed at their desks almost all day long.In the spring of 1748, Emilie met and fell in love with the Marquis deSaint-Lambert, a courtier and poet. This affair did not destroy her friendshipwith Voltaire. Even when she found out that she was carrying Saint-Lambert’schild, Voltaire was there to support her. Along with Voltaire and Saint-Lambert,she was able to convince her husband that it was his child she was carrying.
During the course of her pregnancy in 1749 she finished her work withClairaut, an old friend with whom she had been studying, but her book on Newtonwas not completed yet. She was determined to finish it and with that goal shetook on a very regimented lifestyle of only work.In early September of 1749, she gave birth to a baby girl. For severaldays, Emilie seemed happy and healthy.
On September 10, 1749 she suddenly died.Emilie’s death was soon followed by the death of the baby girl.Emilie died at the age of 43.
Among her greatest achievements were herInstitutions du physique and the translation of Newton’s Principia, which waspublished after her death. Emilie du Chatelet was one of many women whosecontributions to the field of mathematics are