Training and Development
The need for employee training and development in the modern business environment has become increasingly vital and recognized. Training is a procedural approach initiated within organizations to equip their employees with appropriate knowledge and skills through sequential learning processes within organizational environments. Vemic asserts that training spans old and newly recruited organizational employees and comes with associated benefits (3). Different organizations have established different training policies, programs, and methods specifically tailored to pursue organizational goals and employee’s personal growth and development. On the other hand, development is a concept that incorporates the aspect of employee growth alongside an organization’s growth objectively aimed at improving individual productivity and organizational performance and competitiveness (Vemic, 4).
Among the benefits are employee retention, improved quality and productivity, and improved product and customer services. Various training and development methods have been used by different organizations to meet employee training and development needs in line with organizational strategic objectives.
One of these methods is on-site training. On-site training incorporates on-the-job training methods, apprenticeship training methods, and job rotation approaches. On-the-job training method is tailored to evaluate employee knowledge measured on Carlson’s Meta-analysis scale, job relevant skills, and employee attitudes. On-site training has a strong link to organizational goals and strategic objectives that are tailored with instructional design methods for excellent training outcomes (Vemic, 2). The training is benchmarked against competing firms training approaches and is sustained through an amiable environment specific to employee work units, jobs, and the whole organization.
An effective trainer conducts a needs assessment, preparers employees for training, creates a learning environment, ensures transfer of training, has a specific training assessment and evaluation plan, identifies specific training methods, and conducts an employee evaluation of the learning outcomes.
This is a method that is specific for specific jobs and skills. It emphasizes on the use of available materials and tools at the work place. Employees become better equipped to handle their daily tasks and improve on their knowledge about specific jobs. However, this method is characterized by specialization for a specific type of job. Vemic argues that on the job training is one of the oldest training methods and involves a one-on-one interaction with a supervisor specialized in the job in question (3). An employee is taken through verbal and written instructions on the skills requirements for the job in addition to making personal observations in the learning process.
On the job training may be structured or unstructured. Unstructured employee training approaches involve mentoring novice employee by specialized employees. This method has been identified as inefficient as specialized trainers sometimes find it difficult to identify the actual training needs for novice employees. On the other hand structured training is a successful training approach that is tailored for new employees targeting successful task execution and achievement methods. Though it consumes time and resources at the start and decreases organizational efficiency and productivity at the onset, the method has been identified to be effective in imparting required skills for employee productivity and task efficiency (Vemic, 6) Specific to this method, the program involves outlining tasks employees are required to perform, specifying techniques required for task accomplishment, emphasizing on important facts about task execution, demonstrating task performance scenes, and guiding employees on performing assigned tasks.
This approach is valuable for practical lessons particularly for employees who work in an environment that demands employees performing several tasks. This approach targets employees who require specialized skills in the production environment (“Processing/safety and Training” 2).
On the other hand, programmed learning exposes employees to training methods that integrate the use of computerized information system and interactive video. These training approaches are advantaged as they enable employees to train at their convenience in addition to being interactive without the special need of the presence of an instructor. In addition to that, employees can readily access training materials specific to their training needs and requirements.
This approach incorporates scheduled job or task assignments that impart wider skills acquisition for organizational employees.
Employees acquire skills relevant or specific to different organizational tasks. Job rotation allows employees to develop wider skills and knowledge, reduce boredom working on a single task, enhances their skills, increases job satisfaction, and enables them gain better and wholesome experiences. Companies that use this approach should plan well and beforehand to ensure organizational employees cooperate in imparting the right skills to their fellow employees.
Lack of information and unpreparedness may cause employees to get poorly trained and be a complete waste of organizational resources and cause them acquire only bits of skills in the training process (Vemic, 8).
Job enrichment is a strategy aimed at making employees become personally responsible for task executions while enabling them identify specific contributions they make towards the final product. Employees are made to make personal decisions on their contributions to product quality which enhances organizational performance that translates to productivity and profitability. However, this approach can be severely limited by the need for specialized technology, adverse management approaches and attitudes, poor employee attitudes, and high training costs involved in the process (“DHS Training Plan Steering Committee” 17).
While training and development are complimentary, to be successful in employee development, components such as feedback or insight and inherent employee desire or motivation to work for the organization have a significant impact of the productivity and self satisfaction of employee development.
In addition to these, opportunities to practice in the real world, to learn, and incorporate the senses of accountability are key elements in the learning and development process. Insight evaluates an employee’s ability to identify a development need, while motivation spans a personal drive in devoting time and energy for personal development. Real world opportunities target availability of opportunities for an employee to put into practical usage of acquired skills.
According to “DHS Training Plan Steering Committee”, organizations incorporate employee motivation that leads to self-satisfaction by integrating incentive programs, appraisal schemes, and employee recognition against measurable quantities (3). These include feedback, costs, product turnover, performance tests, and morale. Each of these measures elicits feedback that is evaluated against the four levels of training. Among these are the benefits an organization realizes from the use of training methods. One such evaluation is to identify the position of an organization compared with its previous performance levels and productivity, employee behavior, skills, and knowledge usage, and the reaction of the employees to the training program. A well tailored training and development program elicits positive response from employees, while a poorly implemented training program attracts negative employee feedback (Vemic, 8).
These methods ensure strategic organizational success and performance.
DHS Training Plan Steering Committee. DHS Employee Training Plan. Nov. 2004/June 2009. Web.
Nov. 2010. http://www.dhs.state.
or.us/training/publications/DHSTrainingPlan.pdf Processing/safety and Training.
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