Mental Health means capacity of an individual to form harmonious social relations with his/her social and physical environment. In brief, the psychological condition of the mind is the state of mental health. Mental illness is a disorder of the brain that results in a disruption in a person’s thinking, feeling, moods and ability to relate to others. It is distinct from the legal concept of insanity.
Such illness includes such orders as schizo phrenia, schizo-affective disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, obsessive Compulsive disorder and panic. Mental illness also includes severe anxiety disorder, autism, pervasive development disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other severe and persistent mental illness. These disorders can profoundly disrupt a person’s thinking, feeling, moods, ability to relate to others and capacity for coping with the demands of life. Mental illness can affect persons of any age, race, religion or income. Such illness is not the result of personal weakness, lack of character or poor upbringing.
Mental illnesses are treatable. Most people with serious mental illness need medication to help control symptoms. They also rely on supporting counselling, self-help groups, assistance with housing, vocational rehabilitation and other community service in order to achieve their highest level of recovery. Role of Vitamins Every food almost has some vitamins.
Vitamins are organic substance which are essential for the growti, of the body and are required in small amounts. Their deficiency causes sickness and stunted growth. Vitamin A (retinol) is found in foods of animal origin viz., shark, liver oils, eggs, green vegetables Carotene is also a source of Vitamin A. It is a yellow pigment found in vegetable foods, it is converted into Vitamin in the body. The deficiency of Vitamin A in the body causes night blindness. Infact Vitamin-A deficiency in the body causes Xerophtalmia leading to blindness. The recommended daily allowance of Vitamin A (retinol) for men, women and children is 600 Meg.
But for lactating women and infants it is 950 Meg and 350 Meg respectively. Vitamin Bi (Thiamine) is a white crystalline powder with yeast like odour and saltish tat ie Thiamine is absorbed from the small intestine. The capacity of the human intestine to absorb thiamine (B,) is limited to about 5 mg per day. Vitamin B, is found in yeast, green vegetables.
Its deficiency causes beri-beri disease in growing children. Neuritis and anaemia are also caused by Vitamin B, deficiency. The recommended daily allowance for men in 1.3 mg; for women 1.0 mg; for children 1.1 mg and for infants 50 meg, Riboflav in (Vitamin B2) is essential for obtaining a steady and continuous release of energy from carbohydrates. Its deficiency causes cracks and soreness at corner of the mouth and of the tongue; opacity of the cornea and digestive upsets. Dermatitis and Pellagra are the major diseases caused by Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) deficiency.
The recommended daily dose of Vitamin B2 is 1.5 mg for men; for women 1.2 mg; for children 1.3 mg and for infants 60 Meg.
The rich sources of Vitamin B2 are milk, cereals and vegetables. Vitamin B3 (Niacin or Nicotinic Acid) is an odourless, white, crystalline substance, readily soluble in water. Niacin is important for proper blood circulation and the healthy functioning of the nervous system. Meat and fish are better sources of niacin deficiency of niacin causes depression, mental dullness. The recommended daily dose of vitamin B3 is 17 mg for men, 13 mg for women, 15 mg for children and for infants 650 meg Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) is a water soluble vitamin of the B complex group. It is a part of the enzyme system and plays a vital role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. The best sources of Vitamin B5 are yeast liver and eggs.
Vitamin B5 deficiency causes loss of hair mental depression and irritability. Pantothenic acid is good for arthritis patients. The recommended daily dose of Vitamin B5 is 10 mg for men, for women 10 mg and for children 5.5 mg. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is a white, crystalline substance.
It is soluble in water. It is mainly concerned with protein metabolism in the body. Its deficiency in the body is unlikely because it is found in extensive quantities in foods. Vitamin Bs (Biotin) strengthens in munity. It is one of the most active biological substances ever known. Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid), in combination with Vitamin B12 is essential for the formation, maturation and multiplication of red-blood cells.
It is the single most important nutrient for a pregnant woman and her developing foetus. Its deficiency causes anaemia. CynoCobalamin (Vitamin B12) is freely soluble in water. The necessary dietary intake for men in one Meg, for women it is 1 Meg, for children 0.2- 1 Meg and for infants 0.2 Meg on daily basis.
Other members of vitamin B group are choline and Initial. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) is an Antibiotic Vitamin. It is readily soluble in water.
The deficiency of Vitamin C causes scurvy-a disease characterised by bleeding from the gums and other parts of the body after or without an injury. The sources of vitamins are citrus fruits such as gooseberries, guavas, limes, lemons, oranges and papayas. One of the most significant functions of Vitamin C is the formation of collegian a protein substance that cements the cells together. Vitamin D (Calciferol) is also known as sunshine vitamin the deficiency of which causes rickets in children and is characterised by defective bone formation. Vitamin D is produced from a substance present beneath the skin when sunlight falls upon the surface of the body. It is required in very small amount (.01 mg) in the body for assimilating calcium in the digestive tract.
Tocopherol (Vitamin E) deficiency leads to reproductive disorders and female sterility. The daily intake required for men is 15 mg, for women 12 mg, for children 8.3 mg and for infants 4.5 mg.
Vitamin K is fat soluble vitamin. It is also known as an anti-hemorrhagic vitamin. It is essential for blood-clothing. The daily intake for men 70-140 Meg, for women 70-140 and for children 35-75 Meg, Cow’s milk is good source of Vitamin K. Vitamin K (Polliquonin) is fairly distributed in food. Role of Minerals As for mineral functions in our body concerned, boron prevents tumour and cysts in the body.
Calcium is essential for strong bones. Chlorine in the form of salt is a natural disinfectant, Chromium promotoes glucose tolerance and works with insulin in the metabolism of sugar. Copper converts iron into hemoglobin.
Fluorine is necessary for healthy teeth. Iodine prevents goiter. Iron purifies the blood. Each gram of hemoglobin contains about 3.5 mg of iron. Daily intake of iron should be 28 mg.
It is necessary for production of haemoglobin. Magnesium helps to keep the nerves relaxed. Manganese assists in the coordination between the brains, nerves and muscles. Molybdenum is good for general-well-being Phosphorus is energizer. Potassium prevents acidosis. Zink hastens healing while sulphur is necessary for the growth of hair and skin. Vitamin A, E, D, K is fat-soluble vitamins. Anwla is most important and biggest source of Vitamin C.
The only Vitamin in which mineral cobalt is found is cynocobalamin (Vitamin 12). Carbohydrates and proteins and fats are the rich source of energy. One grame carbohydrate provides 4.
1 calorie to the body whereas one gram of fat provides 9.3 calory of energy to the body. One gram protein provides 4.1 calory of energy to the body.