2. Oriented towards Social Change: A Social movement is generally oriented towards bringing about social change. This change could either be partial or total. Though the movement is aimed at bringing about a change in the values, norms, ideologies of the existing system, efforts are also made by some other forces to resist the changes and to maintain the status quo. The counter attempts are normally defensive and restorative rather than innovative and initiating change.
They are normally the organised-efforts of an already established order to maintain itself. As M.S.
A. Rao points out, though sociologists are almost agreeable on the above mentioned two characteristics or social movement; they differ a lot regarding other criteria — such as the presence of an ideology, method of organisation, and the nature of consequence. 1. Ideology behind the Movement: An important component of social movement that distinguishes it from the general category of collective mobilisation is the presence of an ideology. Example.
A student strike involves collective mobilisation and is oriented towards change. But in the absence of an ideology a student strike becomes an isolated event and not a movement. On the contrary, if the strike is committed to an ideology, it may last for longer period and assume the form of a movement. 2. Organisational Frame Work: As Paul Wilkinson has pointed out that a social movement requires a minimum of organisational framework to achieve success or at least to maintain the tempo of the movement.
To make the distinction clear between the leaders and followers, to make clear the purposes of the movement, to persuade people to take part in it or to support it, to adopt different techniques to achieve the goals — a social movement must have some amount of organisational framework. 3. The Techniques and Results: A social movement may adopt its own technique or method to achieve its goal. There is no certainty regarding it. It may follow peaceful or conflicting, violent or non-violent, compulsive or persuasive, democratic or undemocratic means or methods to reach its goal. The same thing is true of the results. It may become successful or it may fail; it may become partial success or at least it may create a general ‘awakening’ in the public regarding an issue.
The result of a movement has a close bearing on-the ideology and the organisational framework.