This piece of work examines role that economic growth, education opportunity and cultural values can play in increasing gender equality. This paper shows that increased in educational level of women tend to boost gender equality in employment and politics. In addition, it depicts that education in the overall population is critical for increasing gender equality. the literature review provide a comparison between three countries signifying different levels of economical development, including agrarian, industrial and postindustrial societies.
Theses countries are Egypt, China and the United States respectively. The literature indicates that economic growth tends to produce expansion in gender equality and in the employment sector. Thus the role of education is to help boost gender equality in various aspect of the society, including employment sector, politics and contribution in economic development.
2. Research question
There are various disparities in the gender equality concern across different communities of the world. This paper will compare different factors which affect gender equality in the United States, China and Egypt. First, we will determine whether gender roles were dictated by religion.
Second, the study will determine whether the trend in gender roles have been changing within the aforementioned countries through out time. Third, the research will establish whether there are differences in gender and equality in specific societies within the target groups. Fourth, we will determine whether geographical situation effect on gender and equality. Finally, this study will examine whether people in religiously conservative societies tend to have less equality between men and women.
3. Literature review
3.1. Economic growth and gender equality
Egypt’s labor market is currently facing a difficult moment. Joblessness is increasing and women comprise a disproportionately tiny component of the labor force. The civic sector is as well undergoing considerable reforms, which present a specific risk for women, since they make up a comparatively high percentage of the workforce in the civic sector (Morsy 2).
On the other hand, in China, gender equality with respect to wage employment in critical for attaining growth with equality. Econometric evaluation china economic transition income disproportionately increased in both the gradualist stage and radical reform stage. In the gradualist stage state enterprises sustained job guarantor position and social service suppliers, this boosted the projection for wage employment in urban centers.
In the late 1990s reforms in the public sector emphasized effectiveness of productivity and overlooked women’s responsibility in reproduction. Such reforms intervention caused “a drastic increase in gender disparity in employment rates, which decreased the share of wives earnings dispersion of wives to husbands”.
In the United States there is inadequate proof attributing increased gender equality imposed by the legislation to a faster economic growth. Increase in gender equality in the United States has been accounted for by economic growth, concurrent increase in affluence and establishment of specialized market producing increased prospects benefits from human resource investment, makes limitations of women rights increasingly expensive (Morrison 33).
3.2. Impact of modernization on gender equality
A wide range of social, cultural, economic and political indicators associated with women’s lives, vary systematically within agrarian, industrial and post industrial nations globally. The transition from agrarian to industrial civilizations poses dramatic implications. This phase changes the traditional family, that is, the doubling in the proportion of marital women using contraception, as women take increased control over child-bearing as well as family proportion and the considerable decline in the dependency quotient.
Women have recorded gains in administrations and managerial positions, and in careers. This shift also affords women ability to participate in the economic market share by doubling literacy rates with an increase in enrollments of girls in schools (Inglehart and Norris 8). Considerable expansion in the UNDP Gender-related Development Index has been reported.
The shift from industrial to postindustrial stage, as is the case with US, favors increased gender equality in cultural outlook as women procure increased chances in tertiary education and climb the career ladder in management and the professions. Moreover, this phase perceives considerable gains towards bigger political influence among elected and selected bodies, for instance doubling the ratio of women in parliament and rapid expansions in the UNDP Gender Empowerment Measure.
Finally, cultural perceptions of gender roles react to, and interact with such social trends. The five-item gender equality index, such as items on job, family and the politics, indicate far more egalitarian outlook for residents in prosperous postindustrial, such in the US, relative to those communities in less affluent agrarian societies, such as in Egypt. However, the religiosity index indicates the reverse pattern, with exceedingly strongest faith is expressed among communities in the agrarian societies.
3.3. Survival/self expression
This concept comprises a broad scope of beliefs and standards. A core component concerns the divergence of materialist and post-materialist values. These standards reflect an intergenerational change from a focus on economic as well as physical protection, towards a growing importance on self-expression, personal well-being, and quality of life obligations (Morrison 4).
The current crisis in Egypt has its roots in food security, survival. Inflation in food prices has substantially affected food importing nations such as this. In this country majority of the population earn less than $4 per day, which make them insecure on basic concerns such as food (Pitch par. 2).
On the side of china, half of its population is miserably poor. And the Chinese policy that prohibits rural-urban migration aggravates the situation because it ensures that the rewards of the countries economic growth further divides the country into two worlds of abundance and scarcity. Food insecurity can cause such societies to deteriorate socially and economically. Obvious unfairness and dismay for a better tomorrow spoils the bond between the rulers and the citizens (Pitch par. 6).
Similarly, although the United States does not suffer widespread poverty and hunger, many members of communities experience stagnated living standards, and the opportunity to cross over from poverty to affluence have decreased. Higher education is no longer a means to better living standards but rather has started to augment the gap between social classes (Pitch, par. 8).
3.4. Politics and gender equality
Although women in Egypt were given citizenship and complete political rights by the 1956 constitution, practice of these political rights have been undermined by the social and economic atmosphere in the country. Principles motivating the involvement of women in politics have coexisted with more diehard standards, and the clash between them has diversified with time.
In the past two decades this disagreement has increased, mainly because of the political and economic status of the country (Abu-zayd, par. 3). Similarly, women in China have equal rights with men particularly areas including politics, economy, family life, status in society, and culture (Li Xiaohua par. 4).
On the other hand, women in New Jersey started to exercise their right of voting since 1790 but later it was revoked in 1807. Nevertheless, 1920 all women were accorded the right to vote following the implementation of the 19th Amendment of the federal Constitution, “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex,” (The National Archives 11-27).
4. Research design
Study process will be in compliance with the ethical requirements of the answerable committee on human survey of the respective countries. We applied a standard questionnaire and observational methods to collect data on age, sex and ethnicity as well as the socioeconomic data including educational stage, annual household earning, information about the number of women employed in both informal and formal sectors and the man-to-women ratio in politics.
5. Hypothesis development
There is substantial evidence supporting the hypothesis that gender equality in a certain society is dependent on the level of a countries development. Empowering women economically contributes significantly in increasing gender equality
Abu-zayd, Gehan. Women in parliament: Beyond numbers. International Idea. 2010. March 10, 2011.
Inglehart, Ronald and Norris, Pippa. Rising Tide: gender equality and cultural change around the world. 2007. Web.
Li, Xiaohua. Gender in-equality. China through a lens. China Internet Information Center.
Morrison, Andrew. Gender equality, Poverty and economic growth. The World Bank Gender and Development Group Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network September 2007. WPS4349. Print.
Morsy, Maya. MDG-3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women. Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women. Pp. 1-2. Print. March 10, 2011
Pitch, James., Egypt and its lessons to the world. The Washington Times, January 31, 2011. Web. March 10, 2011. http://communities.washingtontimes.com/neighborhood/stimulus/2011/jan/31/egypt-and-its-lessons-world/
The National Archives. The Constitution of the United States: Amendments 11-27. 2010. March 10, 2011.