Q1. Mention two sources that tell us about the Mauryan period. Ans: Megasthenes’s Indika and Kautilya’s Arthasastra tell us about the Mauryan period. Q2. Name the last Nanda ruler.
Ans: Dhanadanda was the last Nanda ruler. Q3. When did Alexander invade India? Ans: In the year 326 BC, Alexander invaded India. Q4. Name the Greek general who was defeated by Chandragupta Maurya. Ans: Seleukos Nikator, the Greek general, was defeated by Chandragupta Maurya. Q5. What was the most important event in the life of Ashoka? Why was it important? Ans: The most important event of Ashoka’s reign was the conquest of Kalinga.
The sight of misery and bloodshed filled his heart with remorse, repentance and sorrow and he gave up his imperialist policy of conquest or Digvijaya, embraced Buddhism, and adopted a policy of Dhamma Vijaya or spreading of righteousness in the world. Q6. Briefly state the power that the King enjoyed under Mauryan administration. Ans: The King was the fountainhead of the administration.
He was the supreme and final authority in all matters – military, judicial, executive and legislative. He appointed ministers and led his army in war. Although in theory he was autocratic, in practice he could not exercise unbridled authority, as a Mantri Parishad assisted him in the discharge of his duties. In matters of justice the King was the supreme authority. Q7. State the rock edicts that give us information about the Mantri Parishad. Ans: Rock edicts III and VI tell us that the King consulted the Mantri Parishad whenever and wherever necessary.
Q8. Into how many provinces was the Mauryan empire divided? What change did Ashoka introduce? Ans: The Mauryan Empire was divided into four provinces. They were – Magadha, Takshila, Ujjain and Suvarnagiri. Ashoka added a fifth province after the conquest of Kalinga, known as the Eastern Province with its capital at Toshali. Q9. Briefly mention the function of the six boards that looked after the municipal administration of the cities. Ans: i.
First board – concerned with development of various industries ii. Second Board – incharge of foreigners iii. Third Board – registered births and deaths of people iv.
Fourth Board – was responsible for regulating trade and commerce v. Fifth Board – supervised the manufacturers vi. Sixth Board – enforced the payment of tithes on goods sold Q10. What was the chief source of revenue under the Mauryas? Name the officers who collected it. Ans: The chief source of revenue under the Mauryas was from the land. Bhaga was the royal share of the produce of the soil, which generally amounted to one-sixth. A class of officers called Samaharta collected Bhaga. Q11.
During whose reign was the third Buddhist council convened? Where was it convened? Ans: The third Buddhist Council was convened during the reign of Ashoka. It was convened at Pataliputra. Q12. What was the ‘tour of morality’ undertaken by Ashoka? Ans: Ashoka had embraced Buddhism and in order to preach his Dhamma, he undertook tours of morality or ‘dhamma yatra’ during which he visited people of his country and instructed them in Dhamma in order to eliminate social conflict and bring about harmony between diverse elements of his vast empire. Q13. What was Dhamma? Ans: Dhamma is the Prakrit form of the Sanskrit word Dharma. Ashokan Dhamma was the code of morality and piety.
Q14. Whom did Ashoka send to Ceylon as his ambassadors of Buddhism? Ans: Ashoka sent his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Ceylon as his ambassadors of Buddhism. Q15. What was the function of Dhamma Mahamattas? Ans: Ashoka appointed special officers called Dharma Mahamatras or Dhamma Mahamattas to promote toleration and preach Dhamma.