Q1. By which constitutional Amendment Act has Local Self Government in urban areas been recognized? Ans: The 74th Constitutional Amendment Act (1993) recognized Local Self Governments in urban areas. Q2. Mention the urban Local Self Government bodies. Ans: Municipal Corporation, Municipalities, Town Area Committees, Notified Area Committees, Cantonment Board, Port Trust and Improvement Trust are the urban Local Self Government bodies.
Q3. What kind of cities has Municipal Corporations? Ans: All large cities with a population of 10 lakhs or more have Municipal Corporations, set up by the State Governments through a State law passed in the legislative assembly. Q4. How is the General Council of a Corporation constituted? Ans: The General Council consists of elected members from different wards who are called Councillors. Also there are Aldermen who are elected by the elected representatives of the people and are usually important and respected persons of within the city.
The number of Councillors varies from city to city depending on the population. Seats are reserved for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and one-third of the total seats is reserved for the women. Q5. Who heads the Municipal Corporation? Ans: The Mayor is the head of the Municipal Corporation. Q6. Who is referred to as the first citizen of a city? Ans: The Mayor is referred to as the first citizen of a city. Q7. Mention any two functions of the Mayor.
Ans: The Mayor receives foreign dignitaries visiting the city. He acts as the channel of communication between the State Government and the Corporation. Q8.
Who is the Chief Executive of the Municipal Corporation? Ans: The Municipal Commissioner is the executive head / Chief Executive of the Municipal Corporation. Q9. What are Standing Committees? Ans: Standing Committee is a permanent body elected by the General Council and is composed of elected councillors. The General Council performs specialized functionswith the help of several Standing Committees that may look after one or more subjects of administration, e.g. taxation, finance, budget, health, education, transport, electricity, welfare schemes like water supply and sewage etc. for the poor. Q10.
What is the difference between a Municipal Corporation and a Municipal Committee? Ans: All large cities with a population of 10 lakhs or more are administered by Municipal Corporations whereas a town with a population of more than 20,000 but less than 10 lakhs is administered by a Municipal Committee or Municipality. Q11. How does a Municipal Committee perform its functions? Ans: The Municipal Committee performs its functions through three organs: i.
A General Board or Council ii. The President and the Vice-President iii. Executive officer and other officers Q12. Mention any two functions of the Chairman of a Municipality.
Ans: The Chairman of a Municipality presides over the meetings of the General Board and he has the power to appoint such officers like the Medical officer, Education officer, Chief Sanitary officer etc. Q13. Mention two compulsory functions of a Corporation or Municipality. Ans: Providing safe drinking water, maintenance of tanks and power stations and establishment and maintenance of primary, secondary schools and adult education centres are the two compulsory functions of a Corporation or Municipality.
Q14. Mention two discretionary functions of a Corporation or Municipality. Ans: Construction of public parks, gardens, libraries, museums, theatres, zoos, akharas and stadia and public housing are the two discretionary functions of a Corporation or a Municipality.
Q15. What are the main sources of income of Municipal Bodies? Ans: The main sources of income of Municipal bodies are dues collected from users of services provided by it and grants-in-aid from the State Government. Q16. What is a Notified Area Committee? Ans: Towns with a population of between 5,000 and 10,000 have Notified Area Committees. It is so called because their formation is notified in the State Gazette.
Q17. Which body looks after the municipal services in a military cantonment area? Ans: Cantonment Boards are set up, to look after the municipal services, in areas where there are permanent military establishments. Q18. What functions does a Port Trust perform? Ans: A Port Trust makes arrangements for ships to enter and leave the port, and look after their maintenance and anchorage. It is responsible for the proper handling of all types of cargo traffic. It sets up storage facilities like godowns and warehouses. Q19.
What functions does the Improvement Trust perform? Ans: The Improvement Trust performs the following functions: i. Ensures construction and maintenance of roads, buildings, shopping centres, flyovers, bridges etc. ii. Sets up parks, gardens, clears slums and demolishes unauthorised or dangerous buildings iii. Frames rules on city lighting and sanitation iv. Takes responsibility of constructing buildings and residential colonies.
Q20. Name any two defects of the Local Self Government. Ans: The two defects of the Local Self Government are interference by big political bosses and the communal basis for voting.