usually infers a process of adaptation on the behalf of the migrating group along
with the host society. Anthropologists invented the term “acculturation” to define
the procedure of two directional changes that occurs when two ethno-cultural
groups face each other. For Segall et al. (1999, p.230),
the psychosomatic acculturation signifies more precisely what experiences of immigrants
are: “the process by which individuals
change, both by being influenced by contact with another culture and by being
participants in the general acculturative changes under way in their own culture.”
Bourhis et al. (1997) offered a uni-dimensional
“assimilation model” to define the ethnic variations experienced by immigrants.
Throughout the life-time, migrants are depicted as following a continuum, with
at one side acceptance of the host’s culture and at the other upkeep of the
immigrant’s culture, typically at the expense of misplacing the inherited ethos.
The midpoint on this continuum is biculturalism, in which immigrants retain
some features of their heritage culture while adopting key elements of the host
culture. However, the issues of adaptation felt by migrants are accredited to themselves,
who are held liable for their success or failure in integrating to the target
society. This model infers a unidirectional process of change in which the migrants
integrate and are engaged into the target society (Bourhis et al.,
the perspective of Social Psychology, the most valuable bi-dimensional model of
immigrant acculturation is the one offered by Berry (1997).
In the view of Berry’s “psychological
acculturation model”, migrants established in the target society should experience
two elementary problems. The first is about determining whether or not the culture
of immigrants is of worth and should be maintained; the second has to do with
the attraction of inter-group interaction, determining whether relationships
with the target society should be avoided or sought.
acculturation model maintains that it is very vital
for the immigrants to be given the due importance in the new region. Immigrants
arrive at a new country with the hope of a better future and look forward
towards the corporation and help from the inhabitants of the region, and if the
help is not provided to them, the individuals can have significant negative
impacts. However, if the process or theory of assimilation is applied, the
individuals can also be made better and productive elements and constituent of
the community (Salant and Lauderdale, 2003).
There are a number of steps that are taken by the immigrants
in the new societies. Often, such incidences occur where the inhabitants do not
give as much space or importance to the immigrants as they deserve leading to
conflict between the two. The crisis of recent Syrian immigrants is a case in
point. As per psychological
acculturation model, the nations of the South-East Europe rejected the culture
of Syrian Refugees and perceived them as threat to their stability and
lifestyle (Mahmoud, 2015).
However, the immigrants better prove themselves
through their effective and efficient capabilities and skills in a number of
ways and forms. There are several reservations of the inhabitants of the
communities as well regarding the immigrants. However, with a clear and focused
approach from the side of the immigrants, they can negate the stigmas attached
to their work in the most productive manner leading to betterment of themselves
as well as the society. These steps that the immigrants take help them in
attaining a better position in the new community but also in enabling their
potentials for more productive works and processes (Mahmoud, 2015).