In management, manager has an effective and efficient way through planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating, controlling organisation resources and monitor the plan so the company can achieve organisation objectives. Management concentrates on plan and budget the resources for achieving specific outcomes. So, they can reduce the risk of not getting the results. They focus on short-term results rather than focus on long-term. Its emphasis on production of good and services to clients. Manager utilises their position power to ask the employee to achieve specific goals. Management is dealing with problem which the answers are given. The outcome of the management is they maintain stability, consistency and make a culture of efficiency (Daft, 2014, pp. 13-17).
However, leadership concern with creating vision and shared values and give learning chances to followers so everyone is in the same direction of working. In the working environment, leader encourages networks and flexibility in working. They need to have changes to achieve the vision on long-term. Leaders will invest in people which uses their personal influence and trust to inspire follower to complete their goals. They attract and energize people by motivating them through purpose and difficulties that they are confronting rather than giving rewards or punishment to the followers. Good leaders are concern for other people and act on their belief. Followers feel that they are part of the community and have contributed to the society. They will admit their mistake and listen to other people recommendations. An effective leader will know who they are and what they stand for. True leader has open-minded and listen to other people opinion. The outcome of the leadership is they make changes and create a culture of agility and integrity (Daft, 2014, pp. 13-17).
Management is about procedures such as planning, budgeting, organising and staffing jobs, measuring performance and solving problem so the company will know how to enhance efficiency. So, management is about deciding for the company (Kotter, 2013).
Leadership is creating change through a vision. They discover opportunities that are coming and can effectively use those opportunities in the future. It is because of the leader behaviour so more people are willing to be followers (Kotter, 2013).
Managers hold conceptions, deep in psyches of chaos and order. They emphasis in process, look for steadiness, control and solve issue quickly. Manager works in an enabling process which includes employee to make decisions. If employee did something wrong, they use punishment, so the employee will be alert while working. Manager tends to solve a win-lose situation to win-win situation. They are concentrate on how to make decision (Zaleznik, 1977).
Moreover, manager prefers to work in a group of people during the project. Managers tell successful people stories to their subordinates. So, they can learn how to improve their works from the stories. Managers are working in one to one relationship where there is more formal and recognised difference in the power of the employees. Manager is conservators and regulators person. They tend to be once-born personalities which means that their lives are peaceful flow since birth (Zaleznik, 1977).
Leaders tolerate chaos, absence of structure of doing work and willing to discover answer to solve the issues. Leadership utilise power to influence other individuals’ thoughts and action. They consider their objectives, forming thoughts, altering moods and decides the direction of the business. A vision is required as a strategy to succeed. A leader will need to have a lot of imagination to succeed in their life. Leaders concern about the thoughts that worker had given. Leaders frequently look for possible chances. They focus on what choice to make so it can solve the problem. Leader have a twice-born personalities which implies that once they are born they feel struggle in their lives and feel never belong to the place (Zaleznik, 1977).
Trait theories of leadership is a leader have personal attributes such as intelligence and self-confidence that different from non-leaders to contribute on success. This trait is difficult to train because it is born and not made (Daft, 2014).