In of three states – Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand

In the recent times, the
demand for new and smaller states has increased by a great margin. India being
a country marked with diversity every detail related to religion, caste, social
habits etc. of population should be worked upon before making a decision of
creating a new state. Various features like quality of land, regional
inequality, different aspects of nature, economy, society, etc. which are
important and relevant from the point of well-being of citizens and efficient
governance should be evaluated before taking the final decision of dividing the
states. With the ever growing poor- rich
income divide and creation of global economy there has been a rise of
inequality which has triggered various movements for the bifurcation of the
existing states.

The regional inequality and downturn economic conditions of some groups
in a state were some of the most important factor due to which demand for
smaller states was initiated and now the demand is increasing. This led to the
creation of three states – Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand in 2000 and
Telangana in 2014. This report analyses the reasons behind the creation of new
states. It highlights the situations in these states and ensuing achievements
followed by doing comparative analysis with the respective parent states. Various
economic and social parameters are observed to measure the performance of new
and mother states pre and post separation. Creation of smaller state is not
always the answer for achieving effective governance or economic viability.
Many aspects have to be considered before dividing the states. The demand for
new states have been based on political and economic factors, but every demand
cannot be acceded to in order to protect the essence of democracy of the
country. 

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The present paper analyses the performance of separated states pre and
post bifurcation. It aims to measure the success of the decisions taken by the
government to divide the states. Economic success is essential for any state to
progress, but for any state to develop overall its citizens should be satisfied
and enjoy a decent standard of living which can be achieved by striving towards
social success. Before progressing with the plan of dividing the state, all
parameters which helps in measuring the economic and social health should be
studied.

Introduction

Madhya Pradesh,
Uttar Pradesh and Bihar were divided and reconstituted to create three new
states Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, and Jharkhand respectively, after the Indian
Government passed the bill of creation of new states in the Parliament in 2000 thereby
changing the federal map of the country. Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, and
Jharkhand, were formed on the 1st, 9th, and 15th
of November 2000, respectively. (India.com Education Desk, 2014) With the creation of
new states the number of Indian states increased from 25 to 28 and with the
recent creation of Telangana after separating Andhra Pradesh in 2014 the count
increased to 29.

 

 

 

 

Formation of Uttaranchal/ Uttarakhand

Uttaranchal
was formed after dividing and reconstituting Uttar Pradesh. Civilians of the
Kumoan and Garhwal hills were the first to raise the demand for Uttaranchal. This
formation of Uttaranchal fulfils the demands of these people which was based on
economic, social and cultural factors. The civilians of the districts who became
the part of Uttaranchal in 2000, felt left out by the government of Uttar Pradesh
pre bifurcation. The Sikhs in some of the districts of Uttar Pradesh and the
Akali Dal, the Sikh political party vehemently opposed the idea of creation of
new and separate Uttaranchal. The reason behind their grievances was the
agricultural land which they held in the regions were getting divided and they
were unsure of the process by which ownership of the land were to be divided.

The
income divide between the people of Uttrakhand and Uttar Pradesh created
inequality which caused a violent demand for new state. The British people
merged Uttar Pradesh with Uttarakhand for ease in governance. But with changes
in patterns related to culture, income, etc. a rift was created between the
citizens of the erstwhile Uttarakhand and Uttar Pardesh.  There were no common grounds between the two
groups. The differences eventually led to tussle with the government, who
rejected the proposal of creation of separate Uttrakhand multiple times.

But with
increase in violence, and the displeasure of people with the government, the latter
forcefully passed the resolution of creating a new state and Uttarakhand was
created in 2000.

Formation of Jharkhand

Jharkhand
comprising 18 districts of Southern Bihar was formed after taking in 35% of
Bihar’s population. It draws 65% of state’s revenue from its coal mines and steel
mills. The formation of Jharkhand was supported by Rashtriya Janata, the
state’s ruling party for political reasons. (Chaudhuri, 2008)

The
creation of Jharkhand was possible after a long period struggle by the tribal
state. The Jharkhand movement was based on economic and social demands. The mal
treatment of the civilians of the tribal states, the grant of reservation
rights by constitution only to some communities, the growing number of
industrial projects undertaken by the government, etc triggered the Jharkhand
movement. The civilians of the tribal state suffered mal treatment for a long
period of time. The desire to break through the chains of deprivation and
injustice, led to the creation of movement which concluded by the formation of
new state, Jharkhand.

The Jharkhand
movement depicted the pent- up anger of the tribal people against the injustice
suffered by them. The wrong doings against the tribal people led to the
creation of new state for them. The fifty year long movement and efforts, which
was initiated soon after independence of the country, by the tribals did not go
in vain, and a new state was finally created in 2000.

Formation of Chhattisgarh                                                                                  

Chhattisgarh
was formed after dividing and reconstituting Madhya Pradesh. The creation of
the new state was based on various social and cultural factors with the
movement and demand for creation of separate state being governed by Brahmins
and Kurmis of upper class. Seven districts of Madhya Pradesh went into the
formation of Chhattisgarh.

The
Brahmins and Kurmis of upper class first raised the demand for
a new state in 1920s. But from 1920s till 1980s the demand for new state was
raised multiple times, but never accepted and acceded to. With the formation of
state wide forum in 1990s the demand for separate Chhattisgarh got a boost and saw
the light of creation. The new government in power, National Democratic
Alliance (NDA), again sent the Separate Chhattisgarh Bill to the Lok Sabha in
the 1990s where it was finally approved and passed by the members.  

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