Informed of constraint. In obtaining the consent, participant

Informed consent is must when it comes to research that involving human subjects and it is a major ethical principle that guide researchers in their works. In the form of language, informed consent is a formal agreement that a patient or subject signs to give permission for a medical procedure or experiment such as surgery and the patient or subject is understand and aware regarding the procedure including the risk of it. From the legal definition of law dictionary, informed consent is a consent to medical treatment by a patient or to participation in a medical experiment by a subject after achieving an understanding of what is involved in the procedure and especially the risks of it. In research field, informed consent is a process of acquiring subjects or participants agreement and willingness to participate in the research. The consent should be given voluntarily without any element of force, undue inducement or any other form of constraint. In obtaining the consent, participant should provided with the sufficient information without any deception regarding the study in an understandable language that include the purpose of study, the potential benefits of their involvement and most important, the possible risks of the study to allow them to make informed judgment and decisions about whether or not to participate in the research. This consent can be taken in a variety of shapes. It can be in a form of document which may or may not require a signature, a script which is read to the participant prior to proceeding with the survey or a paragraph to be read prior to completing a survey questioner.When involving human subjects, it can rises complex ethical issues where require careful thought and consideration on the both part researchers and the participants. One of the issues is about participant’s understanding and willingness to participate in the study. its not just about signing a form, participants must understand the purpose, the procedures, the potential risks and benefits of their involvement, and their alternatives to participationn that they can withdraw at any time while the researcher should be transparent at all time. Besides that, participant privacy and Confidentiality should researcher’s top priority. All information given should be non-disclosed to any third party and in some country, there data protection act to protect the confidentiality that applicable to the researcher while conduct a research. In other ways, to avoid any confidentiality breach data can be collect anonymously or only the data that is really required is collected and all the data collected should be kept safely by the researcher. In other hands, respect and responsibility is also a related issue when the research involving human subjects. Researchers should show their respect and responsibility to the participant especially while taking the informed consent. It will develop trust and give courage to the participant to tell the truth information so that clinching false conclusions by the over and under emphasizing results can be avoid. After all, It is researcher’s responsibility to maintain the reputation of educational research by adhering to the highest standards of quality research.Who is to benefit from the research? One likes to think that ‘humanity’, ‘the subjects’ or ‘medical science’ are going to be the beneficiaries. A slightly more cynical analysis points to the researchers having the most to gain, at least in the short term. After all, given a successful outcome for the research project, they stand to satisfied curiosity, improve their career prospect, or to posture before their colleagues. In practice, benefits accruing to the researcher, the subject and medical science have to be carefully weighed in relation to the conduct of any project. The protection of the rights and welfare of the participating subjects is the primary consideration of scientific ethics.  Informed consent by human subjects is a necessary condition for ethically acceptable research. This means that all the risk involved in the investigation must be explained, as well as possible benefits. Honest explanation of the procedure to the subject takes considerable skill, if disclosing the design of the study (say with placebo treatment) influences expectation and performances of the subject. Also, special care need to be taken when the subject are in some way limited in understanding the risks; for example, people who are intellectually handicapped or confused under the influence of drug. Informed consent implies a freedom of choice: the subject must feel confident that refusal to participate will not prejudice their subsequent clinical treatment.  It is the researcher’s responsibility to minimize the chances of long term deleterious effects to subject. Dangers can arise from administering new treatment with unknown side effect, denying treatments of known effectiveness, or using invasive assessment techniques. The welfare of laboratory animals must not be ignored. There are nowadays enforceable constraints on the condition for using non-human subjects in research. The researcher must also minimize even short-term pain, anxiety, discomfort, or embarrassment involved in an investigation, especially if it is not part of routine therapeutic practice. This is an important issue, as some therapists and researchers take a mistakenly in ‘proprietary’ view of their patients, imagining that they should put up with some discomfort for the good of medical science. In the past, poorer patients in public wards of hospitals and long term prisoners have been the most vulnerable to questionable ethical practices.  Some research, such as that involving the assessment of sexual functioning or the investigation of human foetuses, calls for very sensitive planning. Anatomical research involving the use of human cadaver materials must be planned to ensure respectful handling and disposal. Even if the researcher does not agree, the values and taboos of groups in the community must be taken into consideration when planning the investigation. A fundamental value is that the time and effort of researchers and subjects and the resources of the community should not be wasted on a badly planned investigations will produce clinically useful results. however, some poorly designed project are doomed to failure even before the data collection begins, and lead to confusion and controversy in the professional literature. Therefore, the correct use of research methods is not only useful, but constitutes an ethical necessity.   


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