Introduction/Background:The Syrian Civil War, which began in the city of Daraa, wheresecurity (according to the story of opposition activists) arrested 15 childrenafter writing slogans calling for freedom and demanding the overthrow of theregime on the wall of their school on 26 February 2011.
In the midst of thatthere was a call to demonstrate called her page on Facebook, no one knew whowas behind it a group of activists responded to them on Tuesday March 15, 2011These protests were against tyranny, repression, corruption and suppression offreedoms and the arrest of Daraa children and the humiliation of their parentsaccording to the Syrian opposition, while supporters of the regime see it as aconspiracy against the axis of resistance and the spread of chaos in Syria forthe benefit of Israel in the first place, and some activists from theopposition calls on Facebook to demonstrate on the ground in an unprecedentedchallenge to the rule of Bashar al-Assad affected by the wave of mass protests(known In the name of the Arab Spring), which broke out in the Arab world inlate 2010 and the beginning of 2011, especially the Tunisian revolution and theJanuary 25 Egyptian revolution. The protests have been launched againstPresident Bashar al-Assad and his family, which has ruled the country since1971 under the cover of the Baath Socialist Party under the emergency law since1963. These protests led a number of young Syrians who demanded political,economic and social reforms and raised the slogan: But the Syrian securityforces, the Syrian intelligence and pro-regime militias (known as Shabihah)were confronted with live ammunition and the slogan became “the peoplewant to overthrow the regime.” While the Syrian government announced thatthese incidents of the execution of militants and terrorists would destabilizenational security and establish an Islamic emirate in some parts of thecountry. The march of the so-called Syrian revolution on March 18, under theslogan “Juma al-Karama”, led to demonstrations in the cities ofDaraa, Damascus, Homs and Banias, and was brutally met with security in Daraa.
Four people were killed by the Syrian security forces in that city. Around theage of the mosque and other parts of the city, rights groups said it had killed100 protesters by the end of the week. On 25 March, demonstrations were heldfor the first time in dozens of Syrian cities under the theme of “Jum’a AlAzza” to include Jibla, Hama, Lattakia, and several areas in Damascus andits villages such as Hamidiyah, Marja, Mezzeh, Qaboun, Alksuwa, Darya, Tal,Duma and Zabadani.Execution ofWar/Timeline: On March 31, Bashar al-Assad delivered a speech in his firstpublic appearance since the protest movement began, but demonstrationscontinued to come out.
Under increasing pressure, the Syrian president issuedon April 7 a legislative decree granting citizenship to thousands of Kurdishcitizens in Syria after being deprived of them for decades. On April 14, a newgovernment was formed for the country instead of the old ones who resigned theprevious month. Bashar al-Assad finally announced on April 21 the lifting ofthe state of emergency in the country after 48 consecutive years of imposition.On April 25, the Syrian army launched large-scale militaryoperations in Daraa and Duma, the first of its kind, killing dozens of people,human rights organizations say, most of them civilians due to the siege andshelling of the towns and villages surrounding them. A week later, the armybegan operations in Banias, and then days later in Homs, killing morecivilians.
On May 14, the army launched a similar crackdown on Tallak, whichwas condemned by several human rights organizations. Amnesty Internationalaccused him of months of committing crimes amounting to crimes against humanityin the course of his operations. On May 28 another campaign began in the citiesof Rastan and Talbessa, which killed about 100 people. On June 3, tens ofthousands of demonstrators gathered in Al-Assi Square in the city of Hama,central Syria. The security forces opened fire on them, leaving more than 70dead. This is known as the “Friday massacre of the children offreedom”.
And launching large security operations there, especially thecity of Jisr al-Shughour and Jabal al-Zawiyah, have seen other operationsstarting June 4.On Sunday, July 31 (the first night of Ramadan), the Syrianarmy launched operations in many cities throughout Syria, most notably Hama,Deir al-Zour, Bu Kamal and Al-Hayak. This is the day of the bloodiest protestsso far. More than 150 people were killed in these cities. Of the hundred ofthem in Hama alone, and followed the siege of the cities of Hama and Deiral-Zor lasted for weeks. On August 15, the military and security forceslaunched military operations in the city of Latakia, which led to the killingof more than 50 people over four days.
On August 18, there was an unprecedentedescalation in the positions of Western countries of protests. Five months aftercondemning repression and calling for reforms, France, Britain, Germany, theEuropean Union, Canada and the United States of America simultaneouslyannounced that Syrian President Bashar al-Assad should step down immediatelyafter he “lost” Full legitimacy “. In early June, after theescalation of the cracks in the Syrian army over three months, the formation ofthe first military organization unites these military, the (Free OfficersBrigade) under the leadership of Hussein Hermush, followed two months by theannouncement of the formation of the Free Syrian Army led Raid by Assad, Thetwo organizations for the implementation of dozens of operations by themagainst the Syrian army for months before the brigade joined the Free Officerswith the Free Army in mid-September, but the army did not fight any real battleuntil the end of that month when the outbreak of the battle of Rastan andTalbisa and start violent clashes with him The Syrian Army Killing dozens ofboth sides.Some Key Events andTerms:v Syrian Protests: This label wasadopted at the beginning of the general demonstrations from Daraa and Homs inprotest against the practices of the ruling authority in Syria.v The Syrian Intifada: Some writersused this name and some still use it, because the demonstrations took the formof a general popular uprising between cities and rural areas.v The Syrian Revolution: This label isused by all the demonstrators and civilian activists, the foreign politicalopposition and some internal opposition, and the armed fighters against theruling authority in Syria.v The Syrian Civil War: Thisdesignation is used by many international bodies and European countries, inaddition to a number of research centers and the international media.v The Syrian Crisis: This designationis used by some countries and organizations that are friendly to the rulingauthority in Syria, in addition to the moderate or neutral current of theSyrian people.
v The conspiracy against Syria: Thisdesignation is used by Syria and its supporters at home and abroad.Key Cause of theEscalation of War:Political andeconomic reality:In general, throughout the 11 years of Bashar al-Asad inpower, the regime has been maintained as it is in the role of the Baath Partyin the “leadership of the state and society”. The ruling family andits relatives control sensitive joints, state of emergency, arrest oppositionfigures, and the lack of political opposition on the ground and ininstitutions, and the prevention of demonstrations and restrictions on theestablishment of parties, associations and civil society institutions, as wellas arbitrary detention, military trials, and the file of political detainees.Although the country in its era is gradually shifting fromthe socialist model to the pluralisticeconomic model or the market economy, which has achieved growth andcontributed to the improvement in the income rate, the economy has continued tosuffer great pains. According to official statistics published in the NationalHuman Development Report “In 2005, 41.5 percent of all citizens are belowthe poverty line and their income is less than $ 2 a day.
Poverty rates inrural areas are particularly high e.g. Aleppo. This is a result of education.According to the same statistics, only 32% of students attend secondaryschools.
Of the 2 million young Syrians of university age, only 250,000 attenduniversities. In turn, unemployment is high and market employment is focused onweak competencies and low incomes. The labour force in Syria is growing at a rate of 300thousand students per year and is considered one of the highest in the region.This is offset by the weakness of the ability to create jobs in the labourmarket, which led to the acceleration of migration abroad, especially among theyouth, where 75% of the unemployed In the country whose age is less than 25years. Unemployment, according togovernment estimates for 2005, was 8.4%, and the percentage was questionedindependently by 12%. In addition, 35% of university graduates work outsidetheir competence, with the failure of the employment offices and the GeneralOrganization for the Elimination of Unemployment to reduce this phenomenon, inaddition to the spread of the phenomenon of “disguised unemployment”in the public sector.
The society also suffered from a very large economic gapbetween the middle class and the wealthy class. The beginning of themilitary confrontations and the Arab initiative in the Syrian crisis:In early June, Lt. Col.
Hussein Harmoush announced hisdissent from the Syrian army and established the first military organizationfor dissidents, which he called the Free Officers Movement. On 29 July, asecond organization, the Free Syrian Army, was established. But the Free Armydid not fight until September 27 when the battle of Rastan broke out betweenhim and the regular army, which lasted about a week, and ended with histemporary withdrawal from both cities. On 29 October, the army began firing heavy machine guns atthe neighbourhood in the city of Homs in the wake of violent clashes betweenthe regular forces and the Free Syrian Army at the President’s Round about inthe nearby Bab al-Saba’a neighbourhood. More than 17 security personnel andthese night clashes destroyed two army vehicles and wounded dozens of soldiers.Following these events, heavy artillery and rocket launchersbegan shelling Baba Amr on 3 November. The shelling continued for four days,killing more than 100 people, amid the siege of the neighbourhood and foodshortages.
Human Rights Watch accused the regime of committing crimes againsthumanity in Homs during the campaign. On November 8, however, the regular armywas able to enter Baba Amr, thus ending the battle by regaining control of thearea, which had become a stronghold of dissidents from the army. Following thiscampaign, the General Authority of the Syrian Revolution announced November 11the day of the general strike in Syria “in solidarity with Homs”. On November 16, the Free Syrian Army announced its first attackon a regular military installation since the protests began, attacking the AirIntelligence Headquarters in Harasta. In conjunction with the escalation ofmilitary confrontations, the Syrian government on November 2 approved theLeague of Nations which provides for the withdrawal of the army from thecities, the release of Sisi prisoners and dialogue with the opposition. With nocommitment to the genocide, the university suspended Syria’s membership onNovember 16 and imposed economic sanctions on it. On December 19, the Syriangovernment accepted the deployment of observers from the League of Arab Statesin the country.
Battles:The battle of Ghouta and some of its suburbs broke out onJuly 15, followed by the Damascus volcano and the Syrian earthquake, whichincluded a bombing that targeted the Syrian national security building andkilled elements of the regime, such as Defense Minister Dawood Rajha. On 22July, the Tawhid Brigade began the battle of Aleppo; while the oppositionfighters could only control some of the suburbs of southern Damascus, they inAleppo were able to enter wider areas up to ancient Aleppo; however, theferocity of the clashes led to the displacement of the population and massivedestruction. That each of the two groups could establish final control over thearea; unlike the countryside, the Free Army was able to exert its influence ina stable and frequent manner on some of its towns such as Izzaz and someimportant border points such as the Tel El Abyad crossing; To announce thetransfer of the command centre from Turkey into Syria itself. As for thecountryside of Damascus, the regular army tried to restore the suburbs ofsouthern Damascus and some areas of Damascus countryside. The Daria massacretook place during the military campaign. At the same time, the explosions andtargeting inside Damascus intensified. On September 26, for example, a bombingin the General Staff building near the Umayyad Square, Situation Lack ofpolitical horizon for the solution resigned Kofi Annan, and was succeeded byLakhdar Brahimi.
2015 Role of Russia:In August 2015, news was circulating that the Syrian civilwar was over, as US President Barack Obama thanked Russian President Putin forhis positive role in Iran’s nuclear negotiations. In the same context, TurkishPresident Recep Tayyip Erdogan said: Russia (finally) abandoned Syria, whileSaudi Arabia claims that Iran gave up Bashar.Russia condemned the American plan to give air cover to theforces trained to fight a preacher in Syria.After Saudi Defense Minister Prince Mohammed bin Salmanvisited Moscow, Ali al-Mamluk, head of Syrian intelligence, visited Riyadh withRussian mediation. News of the Saudi intelligence chief’s visit to Damascusappeared.InternationalReactions on Civil War:Most statements by world leaders focused on reform andcondemnation of violence and repression.
USPresident Barack Obama called on his counterpart Bashar al-Assad to”lead the transition in his country or step aside.” The United States, the European Union, Canadaand Australia imposed sanctions onSyrian officials including Bashar al-Assad, including freezing assets andpreventing entry into their territories. Foreign Minister Walid al-Moallem saidthere was no balance of Syrian officials abroad.
“The Turkish position,which sought on 6 April to help “to ensure the prosperity of the Syrianpeople and enhance its security and stability”, and then tightened itstone on June 10 as Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan described what washappening in Syria as “atrocities” and accused the Syrian regime Notto act humanely towards the protesters against it. While the European countriesin the UN Security Council (i.e. France, Britain, Germany and Portugal)submitted a draft resolution condemning Syria, but failed to reject China,India, South Africa and Lebanon and hint at Russia to use the “veto” in the face of anydecision.
In return, Bashar al-Assad received support from Iran, Venezuelaand Hezbollah for what they saw as aWestern conspiracy to destabilize a government that supported the resistance.In the Arab countries, the kings, Bahrain, Jordan, the Emir of Kuwait, thePrime Minister of Iraq and the President of Lebanon contacted the President andaffirmed their support for the regime. The UAE sent its Foreign Minister toDamascus, Only in the Kuwaiti National Assembly 25 of the 50 MPs signed apetition calling for the expulsion of the ambassador and severing ties withSyria. Amr Moussa said that the ArabLeague had received a request to freeze Syria’s membership without givingmore details.
The Human Rights Watch said that the Syrian regime had committeda series of “systematic” violations against the hostile protesters,putting them in the category of crimes against humanity, and that the UnitedNations should hold the Syrian government accountable. Human RightsViolation:The Human Rights Council also voted on a resolutioncondemning Syria for human rights violations and demanding an independentcommission of inquiry.Hours after an attack by supporters of Syrian PresidentBashar al-Assad on the US embassy in Damascus, US Secretary of State HillaryClinton announced that the regime of Bashar al-Assad has lost its legitimacy,adding that Syrian President Bashar al-Assad is not indispensable and that theUnited States is not interested in the survival of his regime Power. But Bashar al-Assad’s regime has received widespreadcondemnation from many Western countries following the Syrian army’s invasionof Hama, Deir al-Zour and Bu-Kamel, and in this context emerged the position ofRussia, which called on Assad to stop the use of violence against civilians.Germany and Italy also called on the UN Security Council to hold a closed-doormeeting to discuss the events in Hama as the European Union imposed newsanctions on the Syrian regime. The most prominent Arab positions came fromEgypt, which expressed concern about the violence in Syria and called for apolitical solution.
How does Assad seethe “civil war” in Syria?Is he a scammer or a president fighting for his country’sinterest? As Syria enters its Seventh year of conflict, what is PresidentBashar al-Assad’s responsibility for his country’s crisis.During an exclusive interview with the BBC in Damascus, Heasked about explosive barrels, which contained a mixture of incendiary andexplosive materials dropped by the Syrian armed forces in areas controlled bythe opposition, which also happens in civilian areas. But there are a lot of shots showing explosive barrels beingdropped, and you can see some of them on the BBC website. There are also manyeyewitness accounts.
I saw, as many saw, the effects of those attacks. In my case,the incident was in Douma, controlled by the opposition, and the bombingdestroyed two adjacent buildings in a residential area.Explosive barrels are dropped aimlessly. Which makes it aweapon that kills indiscriminately?Internationalhumanitarian lawcalls on warring parties to make every possible effort to protect civilians.Therefore, dropping unexploded barrels without a target cannot be consideredamong those efforts.Assad, of course, rightly pointed out that the opposition isattacking the government, taking over land and killing civilians withoutdiscrimination. Death came with wars. Again this is true.
But the mistake oftwo sides does not make what they do right. The purpose of internationalhumanitarian law is to regulate the use of force to protect non-combatants.Assad’s comments on the explosive barrels may have targetedhis supporters at home, knowing that the interview would be broadcast on Syriantelevision and the BBC.He may have been indifferent to the media outside of Syria,whose statements are greeted with scepticism as I describe them with elegance.
Lion’s personality is polite, and he enjoys a friendly nature.The president may believe what he says. His generals may tellhim he does not kill civilians and he believes them. Perhaps he is a scornfulliar.
I do not know. It’s just a guess.Since he inherited his post from his father Hafez al-Assad in2000, diplomats, journalists and anyone interested in Syria have spent a lot oftime exploring Bashar. Many questions have been raised over the past 15 yearson a central issue: Is Bashar al-Assad already in office?At the beginning of his presidency, Bashar faceddifficulties. His father was a prominent and tough man. He came from a poorbackground and emerged as a star in the air force and the Baath Party and cameto power during a military rule in 1963. By 1970 he took power in the country.
Since the end of French colonial rule in the 1940s, Syria hasbeen unstable and has swung from coup to coup. Hafez al-Assad was able to passpower to his son, but he is not the son prepared for this task.Bassel, Bashar’s elder brother, was supposed to succeed hisfather in power, but in 1994 he was killed in a car accident he was drivingquickly and crashed as a result of fog on the way to Damascus airport. Bashar al-Assad was a doctor, not a soldier, and when he cameto power, he was not as interested as his older brother and his father.Bashar spoke about reform. He seemed to forget the past.
Western leaders sought to establish friendly relations with him. Tony Blair, Britain’s former primeminister, thought of giving him a knighthood. But Assad did not stop hisopposition to Israel and his support for Israel’s enemies.Security estimates:Assad is at its weakestAfter the Battle of Aleppo ended, Bashar al-Asad became increasinglydependent on his allies Foreigners, and were forced to accept the loss of areasof land Opposition pockets will not be able to crush them.
Victories achievedin the battlefield; the rule of Assad, However, the Ruwais influence and theIranians increased the account of Bashar’s army mainly due to Russian warplanes And to Shiite militias supported and financedby Iran. Studies show that Bashar is aware that he is obliged to equip himselfwith more of support from Royce and Erin if he wants more land to maintain andsecure them, which means that they will have to balance Ambitions andambitions. With the fall of Aleppo, the opposition will have to change itstactics Conventional warfare into guerrilla operations and suicide bombings andpressure in areas controlled by the regime, which will put Assad in front newchallenges he may not be able to deal with.
Despite the costly victory in Aleppo,the battle was reinforced. The sectariandimension of the shepherd, and the isolation of the Bashar community, deepenedand contributed to More Syrians have been displaced, and the economic crisishas worsened Including the Damascus regime under Western sanctions imposed onit a year ago 2011, as Bashar’s inability to rule over the Badr deepens, andhis power is combined to manage the structure of a failed state whose futurehas no danger On regional security and international security. And preparationsfor the anticipated battle of tenderness and the attack Surprisingly, in orderto organize a “call” in the city of Palmyra, Bashar Assad’s forcesappeared It is not ready for any military action, and it seems that its limitedresources will not He was able to carry out any process of the Great Shawl, andit would not be His interest in wasting his limited military resources was adesperate attempt Recovery of the Eastern Desert Areas or the Euphrates Valley.A security source quoted an official in Damascus as saying: “Assad hasbeen excluded Raqqa Governorate at present, which has become a major impedimentto the organization The Islamic state in Syria, and the radical organization isa problem Washington has solved it, “the official added And make it theresponsibility of the Americans, let those who bother them go Organizing anadvocate for eradication. To achieve further military gains after Aleppo,Bashar Assad Is forced to become accustomed to Moscow’s air force and to thewind power Made available to him by Iran and the Shiite factions that sponsorit, and her head is university “Hezbollah”,but these militias have suffered losses And appeared in the Ankara negotiationson Tuesday 20 December That they wish to reach a cessation of hostilitiesagreement and a strict ownership agreement Bashar has made it clear to open newfronts at present.Aftermaths of CivilWar:War Crimes: Number of war crimes happened during the war by forces andopposite groups by killing hundreds and thousands of innocent people includingforeigners.
Chemical Weapons:Hundreds of people were killed in Aug 2013 after rocketattack on Damascus. After that threatened from United States interventionPresident Assad agreed to abolish all chemical weapons.Humanitarian Crisis:From last few years world face the largest humanitariancrisis as 4.
5 million people fled from Syria to other countries of the world.Bordering Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey have struggled to cope with one of thelargest refugee exoduses in recent history.Conclusion:I think that Bashar is aware of what he is doing. Syria isthe main concern of the Assad family and he inherited the leadership of thecountry. But there is a consensus on his rule, family and friends havepermanent interests and a great voice.The best guess to me, given what he told me, is that Basharal-Assad believes strongly in a battle to keep everything he cares about, andanyone can use this idea to justify any major deal.
As for the way the rest of the world looks at him, I do notthink Assad pays any attention but the future of him is in big risk he shouldtake some sensible steps.