Introduction: Basmati etc. The other varieties of rice

Introduction:

           

Rice is second in worldwide
grain production, following maize, and is the third largest crop in terms of
area in Pakistan.

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The average rice yield in Pakistan, despite numerous technological
advances, is still low in comparison to other countries in Asia. Pakistan must
increase this yield to ensure availability at home and maintain its share in
the export market. Faulty harvesting, and archaic processing of rice also ruins
quality of produce.

But, Pakistan still has a high dependence on cereals such as
rice to meet daily sustenance. Cereals are 47% of the total calorie supply per
capita, and 46% of the total protein supply per capita. Pakistan’s annual population
growth is at 2.42% per year, following the year 2000, a rate higher than annual
growth in food grain produce i.e. 1.5% per year. Inflation in international
circles and occurrence of natural calamities have also had repercussions on
food availability at home.

In this report, we have assessed Pakistan’s standing in
international markets, and analyzed the share of area and production in
Pakistan, and the short term changes, and the various relationships between
production, and inputs, using elasticities and assumed models to fully
appreciate the supply and demand relationships at work, and project that
information to find forecasted amounts.

 

Rice Varieties in Pakistan:

 

We discuss the more heavily
produced varieties of rice that Pakistan chooses to export. There are seven
varieties of Basmati, including Basmati 2000, Basmati – 385, Basmati – 198, Basmati
370, and Super Basmati etc. The other varieties of rice include IRRI -6, IRRI –
9 etc.

 

Shares of the Provinces in Area and
Production:

               

The
average of rice produced in the years 2006-2009, is 5.98 million tonnes, with
an area of 2,679 thousand hectares. The contribution of each province in terms
of area and produce is described in the table below.

               

                                                                Provincial
Shares in Area and Production of Rice

Average
of 2006-07 to 2008-09

Variety

Pakistan

 

Punjab

Sindh

KPK

Balochistan

Area

000 Hectare

Percent

Percent

 

 

 

Total

2678.93

100

67.27

23.96

2.30

6.47

Basmati

1458.57

54.45

100

IRRI

880.55

32.87

18.76

61.54

19.69

Others

339.80

12.68

5245

2941

18.14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Production

000 tons

 

 

 

 

 

Total

5983.93

100

55.50

34.28

2.12

8.10

Basmati

2502.47

41.82

100

IRRI

2692.67

45.00

15.50

66.51

17.99

Others

788.79

13.18

50.85

33.03

16.12

Source: Rice Export Association of
Pakistan (REAP)

 

The table shows
average rice production to be 5.98 million tons over an average area of 2.68
million hectares over the period 2006-9. Basmati rice averaged at 2.50 million
tons over an average area of 1.46 million hectares, and IRRI averaged at 2.69
million tons over an average area of 0.88 million hectares. Other varieties of
rice produced were 0.79 million tons over an area of 0.34 million hectares. Punjab
was responsible for 55.5% of the total production, contributing 67% of total
area, Sindh supplied 34% of total rice produced, contributing 24% of total area.
Balochistan and KPK contributed a combined 10.2% of total production,
contributing 9% of total area used, approximately.

 

Short-term changes – 2007-8 and 2008-9:

 

The percentage changes in area,
yield and production for all 4 provinces for years 2007-8, and 2008-9 are
described in the table below.

It shows that in 2008-9, there was a
25% approximate increase in production caused by an approximate 17% gain in
area and 6.9% gain in yield. Basmati rice production rose by 4.4% due to the
net effect of gain in area (10.7%) over the loss in yield (5.7%). IRRI
production rose by 27.3% due to both a 14.6% gain in area and 11.1% gain in
yield. Other varieties of rice also experienced production growth of 93.5% from
a 50.5% extension in area and 28.6% progress in yield.

 

 

Area, Yield and Production of Rice by Variety:
2007-08 and 2008-09 Crops

Country/Province

Area

 

 

 

Yield

 

 

Production

 

 

 

2007-

 

2008-

Percent

2007-08

2008-

Percent

2007-08

2008-

Percent

 

08

 

09

Change

 

09

Change

 

09

Change

 

000 hect

 

Kgs/hect

 

000 tones

 

Pakistan

2515.4

 

2940

16.9

2212

2364

6.9

5563.4

6950

24.9

Basmati

1377.1

1524.4

10.7

1781

1680

(5.7)

2453.1

2560.7

4.4

IRRI

827.1

947.6

14.6

2977

3309

11.1

2462.3

3135.4

27.3

Others

311.2

468.2

50.5

2083

2678

28.6

648

1253.9

93.5

Punjab

1723.5

 

1954.2

13.4

1907

1843

(3.3)

3286

3601.3

9.6

Basmati

1377.1

1524.4

10.7

1781

1680

(5.7)

2453.1

2560.7

4.4

IRRI

159.8

197.1

23.3

2593

2553

(1.5)

414.4

503.2

21.4

Others

186.6

232.7

24.7

2243

2309

2.9

418.5

537.4

28.4

Sindh

594

 

733.5

23.5

3060

3510

14.7

1817.7

2574.7

41.6

IRRI

531.1

560.3

5.5

3232

3549

9.8

1716.5

1988.5

15.8

Others

62.9

173.1

175.2

1609

3386

110.5

101.2

586.2

479.3

KPK
(others)

61.7

 

62.4

1.2

2079

2087

0.4

128.3

130.3

1.5

Balochistan

136.2

 

190.1

39.6

2433

3385

39.1

331.4

643.7

94.3

(IRRI)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Rice Export Association of
Pakistan (REAP)

 

 

Target Vs Achievement – 2008-9 Crop:

               

We
compare the targeted production levels, based off targeted increase in areas
and yields, with actual levels using the table below. For the
year 2008-9, production surpassed the target by 21.5%, caused by both the yield
and area increasing 13.3% and 7.2% respectively, above forecasted levels.
Basmati production could not reach the target by
4.0%, as the yield decreased by 6.2% despite area surpassing the forecasted
level by 2.4%. IRRI and Other Varieties has overshot by 43.7%, due to area and
yield increasing respectively by 28.1% and 12.2%.

The Punjab overshot its mark by
9.5%, yield decreasing by 2.3% and area surpassing the mark by 12.1%. Sindh
produce went 44.7% above its target level, showing the greatest potential.  Its yield and area increased respectively by
14.2 % and 26.9%. The KPK met its target. While, Balochistan exceeded the
target by 22 .6%, the yield by 35.4%, however, its area fell by 9.5%.

 

Targets
and Achievements: 2008-09

Country/

Area

 

 

Yield

 

 

Production

 

Province

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Target

Achievments

change

Target

Achievments

Change

Target

Achievments

Change

 

—000 hect—-

Percent

—000 kgs/hect—

Percent

—000 tones—

Percent

Pakistan

2494.0

2940.2

13.3

2205

2364

7.2

5720.5

6950

21.5

Basmati

1489

1524.4

2.4

1791

1680

(6.2)

2666.4

2560.7

(4.0)

IRRI/Others

1105

1415.8

28.1

2764

3100

12.2

3054.1

4389.3

43.7

Punjab

1744

1954.2

12.1

1886

1843

(2.3)

3288.8

3601.3

9.5

Basmati

1489

1524.4

2.4

1791

1680

(6.2)

2666.4

2560.7

(4)

IRRI/Others

255

429.8

68.5

2441

2421

(0.8)

622.4

1040.5

67.2

Sindh

578

733.5

26.9

3074

3510

14.2

1776.9

2574.7

44.9

KPK

62

62.4

0.7

2094

2087

(0.3)

129.8

130.3

0.4

Balochistan

210

190.1

(9.5)

2500

3385

35.4

525

643.7

22.6

Source: Rice Export Association of Pakistan (REAP)

 

Analysis of Pakistani Rice Export for the Last Five Years:

 

The
table detailed allows us to analyse the rice exports for the years 2004-9,
based on quantity, value, and average unit price.

The
quantity being exported in the year 2008-9 decreased to 2.7 million metric tons
from 2.9 million metric tons in 2007-8. But, the value of exports shot up to 1983
million dollars in 2008-9 from 1836 million dollars in 2007-8. The average unit
price per metric ton changed from 653.60 dollars to 726.63 dollars.

Basmati
rice quantities fell to 0.974 million metric tons from 1.14 million metric tons
but the value of the exports of basmati rice increased to 1070 million dollars
in year 2008-9 from 1068 million dollars in 2007-8, with average unit price per
metric ton increasing from 939 to 1098 dollars.

Other varieties
quantities increased to 1.75 million metric tons in 2008-9 from 1.67 million
metric tons in 2007-8. The value of these exports experienced an increase of 145
million dollars for the same year. Average unit price per metric ton also was
raised by 61 dollars.

 

Value in `000` US$

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July – June

 

 

 

 

Commodities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2008-09

2007-08

 

2006-07

 

2005-06

2004-05

 

 

Rice

8

63

 

(3)

 

24

 

Value

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

Qty. M.T

2,729,360

2,809,148

 

3,129,142

 

3,688,742

2,891,253

 

 

Value

1,983,231

1,836,063

 

1,125,819

 

1,157,814

932,549

 

 

A.U.P. per M.T

726.63

653.60

 

359.79

 

313.88

322.54

 

 

Rice
Basmati

 

92

 

16

 

9

 

Value

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

Qty. M.T

974,274

1,138,093

 

907,906

 

839,002

814,857

 

 

Value

1,070,338

1,068,862

 

556,320

 

479,616

439,240

 

 

A.U.P. per M.T

1,098.60

939.17

 

612.75

 

571.65

539.04

 

 

Rice
Other Varieties

19

35

 

(16)

 

37

 

Value

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

Qty. M.T

1,755,086

1,671,055

 

2,221,236

 

2,849,740

2,076,396

 

 

Value

912,892

767,200

 

569,499

 

678,198

493,309

 

 

A.U.P. per M.T

520.14

459.11

 

256.39

 

237.99

237.58

 

 

Source: Statistic
Division, TDAP.

 

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