INTRODUCTION for this kind of actions. We know

INTRODUCTION : Water pollution
has been one of the great disastrous things that has been going on around us. Pollution means
adding substances to the environment that don’t belong there—like the  water pollution from this smokestack. GOEL P.K. (2006)
defined that Pollution is not always as obvious as this, however Water is known
to be a universal solvent and an important means that various substances can
get added to water and remain completely or partially dissolved or at times
even undissolved. Water pollution is the result of changes in its substantial
quality and this changes can occur due to both natural and also with the
consequence of one or more activities by humans . In Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental
Protection(1972) a group of experts says that the introduction by man,
directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment
that can resulting in such deleterious effects that can bring to living
resources, hazards to the health of human, hindrance to marine activities, that
includes fishing, impairment of quality for use of sea water and reduction of
amenities. Fortunately
although this much pollution is going on this earth and the earth is always
forgiving us for this kind of actions. We know that pollution is a human problem because it is a relatively recent
development in the earth’s history: before the 19th century Industrial
Revolution, people used to lived more in harmony with the environment around
them. As the wind of industrialization has spread over the whole world, the
problem of pollution has spread rapidly along with it. When the Earth’s
population was n’t so higher, no one believed that pollution can create such
serious problems for us. It was once heavily believed by all that the oceans
were so much big that it can never be polluted. Today, with around 7 billion
people on the planet, it has become clear that it is very possible to pollute
this large ocean by human. Pollution is one of the signs that humans have
exceeded those limits. And this exceeding of limitation will not bring any good
for the human. Human are bringing a great disaster for themselves by this
pollution.

ADVERSE AFFECT : To understand about the water pollution and
its aspects it is obvious to know about the types of water sources that we can
find on this earth. The first source that we find here are the river, ocean,
lakes etc. This water are the sources of surface water. This are the mostly
polluted water source on this earth. There is another source that we can find
is the ground water.
Koplin
(1997) identified that aquifers feed our rivers and supply much of the water
that we drink. This can become polluted as well, for example, when weed killers
are used in people’s gardens drain into the ground by the owners. Groundwater
pollution became much less obvious than surface-water pollution, but is not
less of a problem. In 1996, a study in Iowa in the United States came to
conclude that over half of the state’s groundwater wells were contaminated with
weed killers.  There are two
different ways in which the water is being polluted. The ways are Point source
pollution and the non point source pollution. When the pollution comes from a single location, it is known
as point-source
pollution. A great deal of
water pollution also can happens not only from one single source but from many
different scattered sources. This is called non point-source pollution. The water around us on this earth
can’t be polluted by itself. It is human who are polluting the water. The most
common cause of water pollution are the industries around us. Since the
industrialization the growth of industries and more sophisticated mechanism
which are used for more productivity are causing this water pollution in a
great extent. The most of the pole on this planet are always disposing the
sewage  in this water. This always
increasing peoples sewage are a great source that are causing this pollution.
 According to the
World Health Organization,(2017) some of 663 million people (9 percent of the
world’s population) don’t find the access to safe drinking water, while 2.4 billion (40 percent of the
world’s population) don’t find the safe and roper sanitation system; although
there have been great improvements in securing access to clean water, relatively
this little progress has been made on improving global sanitation in the last
decade which could not make so big impact. Sewage disposal affects on
environment around people and leads to water-related diseases for example
diarrhea that kills 525,000 children under five each year. Another causes that we can see with the increase of
agricultural revolution is the fertilizers and insecticides. This fertilizers
are being used by the farmers and this gets washed away with the rain to the
nearer river lake ponds etc. factories are increasingly polluting the water
since it was started ny the mankind. They are basically wasting the pure water
for their actions and turning them into waste after using. The Clean Watershed
Needs Survey Report(2012)
In
the United States alone, around 400,000 factories take clean water from rivers,
and they pump polluted waters back from where they took it from. However, there
have been major improvements done in waste water treatment recently. Since
1970, in the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has
invested about $70 billion in improving water treatment plants that, as of
2015, in order to serve around 88 percent of the US population (compared to
just 69 percent in 1972). However, another $271 billion in the system are still
waiting to be updated and upgraded.  the
industries are always throwing there chemical wastes to the water. This
chemical wastes creating a great concern for us as this chemical wastes can be
deadly. Along with this we can find many radio active wastes are as well thrown
by this organizations. Most of this radio active wastes come from the nuclear
power plants. Brown.(1997) has
found in his research that Countries such as Norway, which lie at the
downstream from Britain, receives significant doses of radioactive pollution
from all the Sellafield. The Norwegian government has repeatedly complained to
them that the radiation level of the Sellafield has increased along its coast
by 6–10 times. Both the Irish and Norwegian governments now continue to press
them to close this plants. Michael (2007) gave his opinion
on the water pollution that Ships are one of the means of transport in
the sea root. This ships are always throwing the oil wastes to the ocean. From
the research we can find that only
12 percent of the oil that enters the oceans comes from the accidents that
takes place. Here the source of over 70 percent of oil pollution at sea are
from the routine shipping and from the oil that people pour down drains on
land.  Heat
or thermal pollution from factories and power plants also
causes problems in rivers. By raising the temperature, it reduces the amount of
oxygen dissolved in the water, thus also reducing the level of aquatic life
that the river can support.

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CONTROLLING THE RISK: As we can see the sources and how the water
is being polluted we can know how this can effect the world. With the pollution
the rate of pure drinking water is decreasing rapidly. Many people are getting
sick due to drinking this water. The ecological system are being harmed by this
as the species living water are dying. Because of the water pollution many
different kinds of fishes which we used to find in past are not found today. It can poison
shellfish that grow near the shore. People who eat poisoned shellfish risk
suffering from an acute—and sometimes fatal—illness called paralytic shellfish
poisoning.The natural beauty of beaches are decreasing as the waste oil from
ships are washed away tom this beaches. People who bathe or surf in the water can fall ill if they swallow
polluted water. Pollution matters because it harms the environment on which
people depend. The environment is not something distant and separate from our
lives. It’s not a pretty shoreline hundreds of miles from our homes or a
wilderness landscape that we see only on TV. The environment is everything that
surrounds us that gives us life and health. Destroying the environment
ultimately reduces the quality of our own lives—and that, most selfishly, is
why pollution should matter to all of us. As the increase in the rate of water pollution
many people believes that it can’t be stopped. But some people think this cant
be stopped but it can be controlled. To live longer in this world and to give
ourselves and future generations a safe life we should be aware of this
pollution and we should try to control this pollution. It is true that in this
world it is not so easy to control. We saw that most of the pollution are done
by the industries. This industries has become a part of our life. So it can’t
be reduced or stopped overnight. To reduce the pollution the first step has to
be the increase of education about environment. People has to be educated on
the bad effect that can be come upon us due to the water pollution. They has to
be taught how to work against and how to reduce the pollution. The scientist
can make some research on this about how to decrease the rate or how to purify
more water than before. It will be worthy to purify the water as we can’t stop
the industries. The government of every country has to come forward as well.
There has to be some laws to be made upon this. Government has to look upon the
industries. There has to be some monitoring on them so that the industries
can’t throw the wastes. There has to be penalties upon throwing too much wastes
to the water. The industries must try to recycle the waste rather than throwing
them into the water.  Environmental laws can make it tougher for
people to pollute, but to be really effective they have to operate across
national and international borders. This is why we have international laws
governing the oceans, such as the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (signed by over 120 nations), the 1972 London (Dumping) Convention, the 1978 MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from
Ships, and the 1998 OSPAR Convention for the Protection
of the Marine Environment of the North East Atlantic. Many environmental researchers say that it would
be better to tackle the pollution by the  polluter pays principle. Basically
this term says that anyone or any organization that do any pollution to the
environment will has to take responsibility for this wastes. Actually he has to
pay for cleaning this wastes. For example we can say the shipping corporation
has to pay when the throw the oil wastes to the ocean. This kind of steps are
taken by the governments so the organizations take measure to recycle the
wastes rather than throwing o the water.

CONCLUSION: Life is full of choices.
Here in this we can live with a polluted environment where we are always within
the risk of our lives. As we know we can never live a happy and healthy
peaceful life with pollution around us. It us our responsibility to create and
keep a better world. If not for us we must do it for the future generations.
And to do this all of us has to come along. Because no one can do it alone. It
is not the responsibility of the government alone as well. Its everyone’s
responsibility. And we can’t skip this. We can take individual action to help reduce
water pollution, for example, by using environmentally friendly detergents, not pouring oil down
drains, reducing pesticides, and so on. We can take community action too, by
helping out on beach cleans or litter picks to keep our rivers and seas that
little bit cleaner. And we can take action as countries and continents to pass
laws that will make pollution harder and the world less polluted. Working
together, we can make pollution less of a problem and the world a better place

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