Introductionof the Study Corporatesocial responsibility is the major issue in current days in evaluating theperformance of the organization by different stakeholders all round the world.Now days it considered obligatory that organizations should fulfilled theirsocial responsibility in accordance with economic objectives. Organizations doso not only to fulfill their corporate social responsibility but to gaindifferent benefits from the stakeholders such as to build reputation bycontributing in the development of society and increasing performance byvaluating internal and external stakeholders. In the last ten years so manyresearcher have worked on the topic employee perception of corporate social responsibilityand is positive changes on the work behavior of the organization (Maignan etal. 1999; Peterson 2004; Valentine and Fleischman 2008; Turker 2009b; Kim etal. 2010). (Peterson’s 2004) study showed the positive relationship betweenperception of corporate social responsibility and performance of theorganization in connection with employees organizational-commitment.
Later on,(Valentine and Fleischman, 2008) explained once again positive effectsinfluencing perception of Corporate social responsibility with the jobsatisfaction. (Turker’s, 2009b) discussed further that there is positiverelationship in perception of Corporate social responsibility with internal aswell as external stakeholders along with consumers and employees and theirorganizational-commitment. Itis clear from the above mentioned literature that previous studies have beenfocused on the different dimensions of Corporate social responsibility such asOrganizational-commitment, organizational-identification and job-satisfaction.It is cleared from the above discussion there are no enough studies on internalstakeholders of the organization in connection with corporate socialresponsibility and their perception about the organization in which they areworking. Turnover intention of employees in accordance with Corporate socialresponsibility has been totally ignored by most of the researchers. In thisstudy we have tried to just fulfill the gap; in this study we have discussedthe impacts of Corporate social responsibility upon turnover intention ofemployees in connection with Organizational-identification,organizational-commitment and job-satisfaction.
Problem Statement Such kind of studies has great importance andsignificance in underdeveloped countries such as Pakistan. As we are alreadyfar behind from the developed nations, so we have great need to implement Corporatesocial responsibility practices in our country. Organizations should contributetoward the social welfare of the country by doing this organization not onlybuild great reputation among its customers conceded as external stakeholdersbut also earn a great identification and commitment from their employees withgreat job satisfaction and retention of employees.
The proper implementation of Corporate socialresponsibility practices enabled the organization to have great organizationalcommitment and loyalty from the employees. If organization does so theyeliminate the issues of employees in accordance with switching job and turnoverintention.Inthis study we will disused the impact of different dimensions of Corporatesocial responsibility such as Job-satisfaction, organizational-commitment,organizational-identification and turnover intention. All these factorsmotivate the employees and lead the organization toward the better performance.
Research Questions The research questions of thestudy are: 1. Does corporate socialresponsibility has any influence on employees of the organization? 2. Does Corporate socialresponsibility plays any role in organizational-commitment? 3. Does corporate socialresponsibility paly any important role in organizational-identification? 4.Does corporate social responsibility have any impact on job satisfaction ofemployees in the organization? 4. Does Corporate socialresponsibility is associated in any terms with turn-over intention of theemployees.
Research ObjectivesTheobjectives and goals of the study are mentioned here under: 1. To examine the relationshipbetween Corporate social responsibility, organizational-commitment,organizational-identification, job-satisfaction and turnover-intention. 2. To exam the mediating role oforganizational-commitment, organizational identification and job satisfactionbetween Corporate social responsibility and turnover-intention.Significance of theStudy Thisresearch will help organization in performing better by retaining their staffand employees for long period of time by implementing Corporate socialresponsibility practices in its culture. Corporate social responsibility meansthat organization earn from the community in terms of profits, o it is theliability and responsibility of the organization to contribute something towardthe society the build the society in different ways.
Organizations cancontribute towards society by donations to welfare institution working for thewelfare of the society. By contributing in heath sector the organization canfulfill their responsibilities in connection with Corporate socialresponsibility. This research will contribute in existing body of knowledge byproviding information and investigating the relationship among differentdimensions of the Corporate social responsibility such as OC, OI, JS and turnover intention.Thisstudy explained importance and significance of Corporate social responsibilitypractices implemented by an organization for its internal and externalstakeholders, Such as these practices enabled the organization to have more jobsatisfaction as employees feel more secure and proud with social contributionby the organization. This also enabled the organization to reduce the turnoverintention of the employees. Everyone know this era is of competition andcompanies facing tough competition as this world has become a global villagespecially in terms of business activities.
Every organization wants to win thecompetition and excel the next organization to be competitive in the market. Corporatesocial responsibility enabled the organizations so do so. In this study we haveexamined the impacts of implementation of Corporate-Social Responsibilitypractices on organizations benefits especially associate with employees of theorganization. Corporate SocialResponsibilityCorporate-Social-Responsibility (CSR) is defined as thevoluntary activities undertaken by a company to operate in an economic, social and environmentally sustainable manner.
Organizations do soto win the competition and excel the other organizations. Organizations involvein the CSR practices just to contribute their part toward the society fromwhere they are earning.OrganizationalCommitmentOrganizational commitment is defines as whenemployees are emotionally attached with the organization. This emotional stateis considered to be organizational commitment. In other words “in organizational behaviorand industrial and organizational psychology, organizational commitment isthe individual’s psychological attachment to the organization”. OrganizationalIdentificationOrganizationalIdentification (OID)is defined as the situation in the organization where employees andorganization are on same page in determination of values and goals.
In otherwords “it is a situation where the employee and the company share the samegoals and values. In this lesson we will discuss the importance of that aspectas it relates to the business environment”Job SatisfactionJob satisfaction isdefined as how much the employees are associated with their jobs in terms ofliking and disliking the job as well as the organization. “Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction hasbeen defined in many different ways. Some believeit is simply how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether or not they like the job or individualaspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision”.Turnover Intention”Turnover intention is a measurement ofwhether a business’ or organization’s employees plan to leave their positionsor whether that organization plans to remove employees from positions. Turnover intention, like turnover itself, can be either voluntary orinvoluntary.” It means employees are thinking about switching the organizationor not.
It all depends upon their job-satisfaction, organizational-commitment,and organizational-identification. Organizations tried to reduce the turnoverintention of the employees in order to enhance their performance.LITERATUREREVIVIEWToday the patternsof doing business have been changed, organization focus not only on profitseeking. Organizations considered the benefits of stakeholders as well (McGuire1963; Davis 1973; McWilliams, Siegel and Wright 2006; Aguilera, Rupp, Williamsand Ganapathi 2007; COM(681) 2011), Corporate social responsibility focuses ongood causes such as protection of nature and such business practices which arebeneficial socially which shows business concerns about ethical issue on partof the organization (Kotler and Lee 2005). Internal Corporate socialresponsibility aimed at promoting the value of equity, health and safetymeasures for the employees of the organization and its training within theorganization, maintaining balance in practical life and social life, fulfillinghuman rights, diversification in the processes and creating equal rights in theorganization for employees and in filling of vacancies (Vuontisja ¨rvi 2006;Turker 2009a; Gond, Igalens, Swaen and El Akremi 2011; Shen and Jiuhua Zhu2011). On the other hand external Corporate social responsibility (CSR) isassociated with protecting natural environment, marketing practices,establishing measure for social welfare of the society (Brammer et al.
2007;Chen, Patten and Roberts 2008; Cornelius et al. 2008; COM(681) 2011). Corporatesocial responsibility primarily focused on primary stakeholders such ascustomers of the organization, interested investors, and job seekers. There isa great link between the performance of an organization and its investment inthe social activities (Graves and Waddock 1994; Turban and Greening 1997; Senand Bhattacharya 2001; Sen et al.
2006; Perrini and Castaldo 2008; Pivato etal. 2008). On the other hand employees of the organization are the promray partof organization as internal stakeholders and they receive less attention as theothers (Jones 2010; Shen and Jiuhua Zhu 2011), there is a bit work done on therelationship between Corporate social responsibility and employees behavior(Peterson 2004; Brammer et al. 2007; Turker 2009a; Shen and Jiuhua Zhu 2011).
Whenemployees consider same values and objectives for their selves whichorganization has and share same patterns it’s called organizationalidentification. In recent years organizations have focused on both dimensionsof the Corporate social responsibility such as organizational commitment andorganizational identification in both internal and external dimensions (Basu& Palazzo, 2008). It is very clear for the organization that employees aremost important asset and also their identification (Fichman & Levinthal,1991) that’s why, in terms of Corporate social responsibility employees shouldget better attention. Employees are the main part or object of internal Corporatesocial responsibility which primarily describes about social behavior.
In orderto explain the effects and impacts of corporate social responsibility onemployee’s positive behavior toward the organization we need to have betteridea of psychological mechanisms that form the responses of employees inconnection with Corporate social responsibility (Bhattacharya et al. 2009). InAccordance with stakeholder view (Freeman 1984; Barnett 2007), the relationshipbetween organization and stakeholders influence the attitudes and behavior ofdifferent stakeholders specially employees in connection with job satisfaction(Morgan and Shelby 1994; Waddock and Smith 2000; Post, Preston and Sachs 2002;Bhattacharya et al. 2009). In line with this view, previous studies based onsocial identity theory suggest that employees’ pride of membership in asocially well-regarded organization satisfy their need for self-esteem, whichshould enhance favorable attitudes such as organizational-commitment (Peterson2004; Brammer et al. 2007; Turker 2009a). These studies did not guide us aboutthe mechanism of employee’s attitudes towards their job satisfaction inconnection with corporate social responsibility (Bhattacharya et al.
2009;Jones 2010).The aim of thisresearch will be to analyze the impact of Corporate social responsibility onemployees turnover intention. In order to achieve this goal a quantitativeapproach will be suitable option for conducting this research. The researchdesign will be cross sectional design. A survey will be conduct among employeesof banking sector through questionnaires and e-mails where necessary.
RESEARCH MODEL Corporate-Social Responsibility Organizational Commitment Organizational-identification Job-satisfaction Turnover Intention RESEARCH METHODOLOGYThe aim of thisresearch will be to analyze the impact of corporate social responsibility onemployees turnover intention. In order to achieve this goal a quantitativeapproach will be suitable option for conducting this research. This study is causal and correlational. Herewe examined the effect of Corporate social responsibility effect onturnover-intention in relation to Organizational-commitment,organizational-identification and job-satisfaction so this study is causal andeffect. In this study we have filled data from bank employees are contacted toget their responses and filled the questionnaire in their work environment.Data analysis will be done through SPSS in which descriptive analysis,frequencies and correlation and multiple regression analysis will be used tofind study results