Julius Caesar was a strong leader for the Romans who changed the courseof the history of the Greco – Roman world decisively and irreversibly. With his courage and strength he created a strong empire .
Whathappened during his early political career? How did he become such astrong dictator of the Roman Empire? What events led up to the makingof the first triumvirate? How did he rise over the other two in thetriumvirate and why did he choose to take over? What happened duringhis reign as dictator of Rome? What events led up to the assassinationof Caesar? What happened after he was killed? Caesar was a major partof the Roman Empire because of his strength and his strong warstrategies. Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman whose dictatorship waspivotal in Romes transition from republic to empire. When he was youngCaesar lived through one of the most horrifying decades in the historyof the city of Rome. The city was assaulted twice and captured by Romanarmies, first in 87 BC by the leaders of the populares, his uncle Mariusand Cinna.
Cinna was killed the year that Caesar had married Cinnasdaughter Cornelia. The second attack upon the city was carried our byMarius enemy Sulla, leader of the optimates, in 82 BC on the lattersreturn from the East. On each occasion the massacre of politicalopponents was followed by the confiscation of their property. Theproscriptions of Sulla, which preceded the reactionary politicallegislation enacted during his dictatorship left a particularly bittermemory that long survived.
Caesar left Rome for the province of Asia on the condition that hedivorce his wife because Sulla would only allow him to leave on thatcondition. When he heard the news that Sulla had been killed hereturned to Rome. He studied rhetoric under the distinguished teacherMolon.
In the winter of 75-74 BC Caesar was captured by pirated and, while intheir custody awaiting the arrival of the ransom money which theydemanded, threatened them with crucifixion , a threat which he fulfilledimmediately after his release. He then returned to Rome to engage in anormal political career, starting with the quaetorship which he servedin 69-68 BC in the province of Further Spain. In the Roman political world of the sixties the dominance of theoptimates was challenged by Pompey and Crassus. The optimates, led byQuintus Lutatius Catulus and Lucius Licinius Lucullus , were chiefly menwhose careers had been made by Sulla. Pompey and Crassus were consulsin 70 BC and had rescinded the most offensively reactionary measures ofSullas legislation.
During Pompeys absence from 67 to 62 BC duringhis campaigns against the Mediterranean pirates, Mithridates, andCrassus, his jealous rival. Caesar married Ponpeia after Corneliasdeath and was appointed aedile in 65 BC As aedile , Caesar returned toMarius trophies to their former place of honor in the Capitol, thuslaying claim to leadership of the populares.When Caesar was a praetor, he supported a tribune who wanted Pompeyrecalled to restore order in Rome. As a result, Caesar was suspendedfrom office for a period and antagonized Catulus. Before leaving Rometo govern Further Spain for a year, Caesar divorced his wife Pompeiabecause of the allegation that she had been implicated in the offense ofPublius Clodius.
The latter was then awaiting trial for breaking intoCaesars house the previous December disguised as a woman at thefestival of the Bona Dea, which no man is allowed to attend. After his return from a successful year administrating Spain Caesar waselected consul for 59 BC through political alliance with Pompey andCrassus . This alliance was called the first triumvirate.
Caesarspurpose was to gain a big military command. Pompey for his part soughtthe ratification of his Eastern settlement and land allotments for hisdischarged troops. Crassus sought a revision of the contract forcollecting taxes in the province of Asia. An agrarian bill authorizingthe purchase of land for Pompeys veterans was passed in January of 59BC at a disorderly public assembly which Caesars fellow consulCalpurnius Bibulus, was thrown from the platform and his consularinsignia were broken.
Bibulus tried to stop Caesar and his supportersfrom passing any further law but was only able to postpone the creationof the new laws by saying that the skies would not permit it becausethere was stormy weather and they were very superstitious. Caesardisregarded Bibulus behavior