Learning theory can be used to producemanagement strategies to modify animal behaviours. An example of this would beby using LIMA (Least Intrusive,Minimally Aversive) protocols.
LIMA is designed to use positive reinforcementin replacement of punishment in order to modify an animal’s behaviour for thelong term. When training an animal using LIMA, it is important to consider thequestion “what do you want the animal TO do?” By punishing the animal when itdoesn’t give the desired response, this isn’t answering the question and as aresult offers no behaviour for the animal to acquire, which is why punishmentshould be avoided. If punishment is being used to discourage an unwantedbehaviour, it should be used minimally and be stopped once the desiredbehaviour has been achieved.The hierarchy of behaviourchange asshown in figure 7 suggests an order of procedures to take to modify behavioursranging from the least intrusive at the top to the most intrusive at thebottom. Wellness: Nutritional,Physical: thismeans to check the animal for any physical problems or health issues beforedetermining the reason behind the behaviour.
Antecedent Arrangements: this refers to an event or stimulithat happen immediately before the behaviours occur. Positive Reinforcement: this refers to somethingwhich is added after the desired behaviour (for example a reward) to encouragethe behaviour to occur more frequently in the future. Differential Reinforcementof Alternative Behaviours: this means that the unwanted behaviour is eliminated due to anotherbehaviour being introduced using positive reinforcement. Extinction, NegativeReinforcement, Negative Punishment: by permanently removing the consequence which waspreviously enforcing the behaviour, results in extinction of that particularbehaviour. Negative reinforcement is used by removing something following thebehaviour to result in the behaviour taking place more frequently. Negative punishment is similar however whensomething is removed, the behaviour happens less frequently.
Positive Punishment: this refers to somethingbeing added following the unwanted behaviour which leads to the behaviourhappening less frequently.