MUMBAI THEORIES AND REFERENCES ON URBAN FORM Mumbai,the modern metropolis of India dates its rich and beautiful heritage whichshaped its modern urban form dates back from 12TH century Shilhara dynasty who ruled the islandsof Bombay from 810 to 1260 A.D . The famous caves of Elephanta were carvedduring this age. Kalyan, a village atharbor served as port for trade and commerce which lasted till end of 17thcentury. Raja Bhimdev in 13thcentury made Makikawati present day Mahim as his capital .He also build a courtof justice and temple at Prabhadevi .Under his rule large area of land wasbrought under cultivation and varieties of plantations were planted throughoutthe island.
Many communities like Bhois, Agis , Vadvals Brahmins and Bhogismigrated to Bombay at this time.During 14TH century the Gujaratkings captured the island and constructed Mahim mosque during this period. Itis estimated that Konkani population migrated to the place during this period. In 16TH century with the arrival of Portuguese in 1508,first ship sailed to harbor and was capture by Francis Almeida .In 1534, theyowned concession from kings of Gujarat the rights of islands on Bombay andcaptured more region such as Goa in 1510, Malacca in 1511 and Hormuz in 1515.Onthe north of islands along coast of Gujarat and fort of Bassein present dayVasai , Bandra , Mahim and harbor of Varsova many strong houses were build and vazadorscontrolled and ruled over the island.
Garia de Orta a vazador of island build a manor house in1554. In 1661, the Bombay islands weregiven to British East India Company, It was owned for sum of 10 pounds a year ,whichwas payable on every September 30.Sir, George Oxenden was appointed as first Governorof Bombay who was also the president of Surat factory appointed Judge andadvocate and renamed island as Bombay castle , he also opened up the island for business and construction of warehouse. In 1672 ,Gernald Aungier wasappointed as new Governor of Bombay , he shifted their power capital to from Suratto Bombay and planned the new city extensionsof fortifications from Dongri to Mendhams point to present day lion gate insouth. The British East India Company also offered skilled workers and traders to set up businessin new township ,as a result various communities such as Armenia , Parsis ,Jews,Gujrathi migrated towards islands and population rise of 10,000 was registered until1675.He also constructed a port with berthing capacity of 20 ships whichimplied increase in trade merchants of both British and Indian origins were trading in rice , salt, cloth ,ivory andlead increased .He also established Forces of Marines for safety and securityof harbor .
In 18TH century ,1728establishment of Mayor’s court was witnessed in town . Reclaiming of land alsostarted as a temporary work on Mahalakhmi creek separating Worli and Bombay.In,1753, Ship building industry started in Bombay and Lowjee Nusserbanji build first dock of island named Wadia ..
During thisperiod the city started to develop into major treading town and it witnessed various migrants such as Banjarasfrom ghats , Goldsmiths , Blacksmiths , Bhatias , Shenvi Brahmins and weaversfrom Gujarat to island. The Portuguese exited the islands due totwo years long battle with Maratha Peshwa Bajirao. To the response of Marathaempowerment the British cleared a large stretch of lands to provide a good firepower during battles , thus Indian settlements were pushed to further north ofisland.With new building rules in 1748,the populations was distributedthroughout the island and many residence were demolished and constructed onnewly claimed land . As the century witnessed rivalry between British,French and Marathas , In 1746 fort was constructed with black basalt stone manybatteries and bastions were added , locals raised name as Kala Killa .The fortwas equipped with three gates, firstly Apollo gate present day St.
Andrew’church . Secondly, famous Churchgate with present day location ofFloral Fountain and lastly,was Bazaar gate at present day General Post office. In 1795 as Marathas defeated the Nizamsmany artisans and construction works from Andra migrated to Bombay and settle onflat lands.Mazagaon docks was built in 1796. Withthe confirmation of British administration under British East India Company onisland, Civil administration and council started planning of the city withconstruction of roads at right angles intersection, many restrictions were alsoplaced on building height , segregation among neighboring building was enforced,1000 residence inside fort wall and 6500 residence outside fort wall wereconstructed during 1794.Among Reclamationof land Hornby vellard at beach candy was first major work, which prevented flooding and high tides ,islands of Mahalakmi and Worli were also soon added to the main land. The cityof Bombay took its shape in 19TH century.
The city was build joiningthe seven islands and reclaiming of land took place till the next half century.Later in 1961-1865 Bombay became the center of cotton trade were many Britishand Indians gained a wholesome of wealth and profit. Much expenditure of moneywas concentrated in re building the core of the city into a grand showcase bycompany. In 1803 after the great fire, the Indian part of town was razing manylocalities, the crowded town started growing towards the northern and easterndirection of the fort . A new opportunity for better development plan of citywas witnessed after the fire . With the fall of the Marathas, Britishcrowing the city administration brought in more developed communications andtrade between the city and neighboring hinterland with accelerated increase intrade and commerce .The process in acceleration of construction of Colabacauseway let to the establishment of important cotton exchange and commercialarea in city .
Mahim causeway build between Mahim and Sion was built by a localresident Avabai lady Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoyin 1845. In 1849, with the almost completedphysical setting of the city, British introduced Great India Peninsular (GIP )a railway network which spanned 21 miles between Thane and Bombay was inauguratedon April 6 .City got its first cotton mill in 1857 , as city surrounds by blacksoil cotton cultivation was encouragedin the region. Due to civil war in USA , India gained all attention of cottontrade in world. City witnessed rapid increases in mills which encouraged migrationof more Marathi speaking population to the island .This economic boom became amajor problem to the city .
Chawls , basically modeled after army barracks of 3floor each were built to accommodate theses mill workers, mostly men whosefamilies were left behind in villages, group of these Chawls were called Wadi.Increase in mills eventuality doubled the population were families of workersalso started to migrate and adequate number of Chawls encouraged more number ofslums in city. In 1864 ,Sir Barte Frère Governor ofBombay removed fort walls .This act further resulted to develop core area ofthe city with construction of victoria terminus, university, Bombay municipal corporation, Town hall etc During 19th century Parel,Sewri and Bycullah were fashionable inner suburbs of Bombay. The constructionof mills began to push all the British and Parsi merchants out of these areastowards Malbar hills. These areas completely saw transformation due to plagueand led opportunities for the middle class. After plague many city planningagencies were set up for improvement of the city, To house 2 lakh populationthe city improvement trust developed the suburbs nearly around 2000 acres ofDadar, Matunga, Wadala and Sion.By 1925, railways was electrified and connectedto the northern suburbs.
The inner city was already congested and to improveopen spaces city improvement trust started widening roads to channel thewesterly breezes from sea. As the distance within city increasing motorizedtransport taxis started operating from 1911, first motorized bus ran betweenCrawford market to Afghan church in 1925.Trains also began to operate in harborline by this time.
The fort area developed into business district,with the introduction of gothic revival of 19th century gave way tomany Indo-Saracenic style of architecture. General post office was the first buildingfollowed by prince of Wales Museum, Gate Way of India , The Institute of Science, the Office of BB and CI Railways. Bombay was also witness were many freedomstruggle movements, health and relief camps were run which were funded by localmerchants. In meantime greater Bombay has come into existence in 1945 due tothe acts of British administration. Soonafter the independence in 1950 and 1960 there was rapid population increase incity due to lack of opportunities in rest of the country. In 1960’s Bombaybecame the capital of Maharashtra . Bombay stock exchange , sky-scrappers towering architecture ,withboom in secondary and tertiary sector lifted the city in one among top fourcities in world.
The city was renamed asMumbai in 1990’s. To encourage development of city through theMaharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act specify, that every corporation mustprepare master plan over 20years .The city first Master plan was prepared in1981 and implemented in 1994 . The second Master plan was prepared in 2014which is vision for 2034 .Now the city has transformed into most densely populatedMetropolitan area with population of 26 million and projected to grow more than45 million people by 2052 .The strain on infrastructure and services hasalready lowered the quality of life and economic growth. Now the city visions to transforms into –world class city with vibrant economy and high standard of living.
in a uniqueexample of Public private partnership, a task force and committee was formed toguide Mumbai Transformation Programme (MTP). The Cities Alliance, World Bankand US Agency for International Development (USAID) then stepped in to supportcreation of Mumbai Transformation Support Unit (MTSU), to spur economic growth, reduce poverty and enhance the quality of residents. Submitted by : Vaibhav k Ist Sem M.Arch