When it was used to promote industry. As

When we think of Napoleon, we think of massive military conquest comparable to the Roman Empire.

However, there are also the numerous reforms he made to domestic policy during his reign of 1799 to 1815. There are three main viewpoints relating to his domestic policy. The first is by Godechot who believed Napoleon “changed the history of France and the world”. He thought that Napoleon’s policies truly benefited France. However, a contrary viewpoint is made by Seward who thought Napoleon was a demagogue who had an “obsession with power”.

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A third median of the two extremes was proposed by Soboul. Soboul thought that Napoleon advantaged France in some ways but hindered in others. -Strengths and weaknesses of each viewpointDespite all other viewpoints, Napoleon did benefit France and helped mold France and western society as to what it is today by introducing economic, political and social reforms to France’s domestic policy. Napoleon was a political mastermind. France was divided in the judicial system they used. Northern France practiced customary law from medieval tradition, while southern France used law evolved out of Roman code. However, Napoleon codified the law code into one code for the entire nation. This gave equality, freedom from arrest without process, equality of taxation and religious freedom.

Jewish people were allowed to live anywhere they could afford and not be restricted to ghettos. The Napoleonic Code of law made France a nation of equality, rights and liberty, such qualities expressed in today’s western society.Economically, he forged France’s economy out from the fire of revolution.

Napoleon recognized that economic reform was essential to increase employment and restore confidence in the government’s ability to foster economic growth. In 1800 he established the Bank of France. Modeled after the Bank of England, it was used to promote industry. As a result, the franc became the most stable currency in Europe.

The Bank of France proved to be significant in the stabilization of the economy. This stabilization was necessary to be able to increase income and ensure the security of the nation. Furthermore, Napoleon refined tax collection by demanding 5% of every citizen’s income and there were no tax exemptions based on class. Hundreds of officials were appointed to collect taxes on income and property. In 1880, 660 million francs were collected, exceedingly more than pre-revolutionary times.

With more income, the government could spend on various social programs for the people. A main social program introduced, as a result of a healthier economy, was education. In 1802, he introduced lycees, the equivalent of high schools. These schools were designed to produce skilled civil servants and military officers. After the lycees, men could pursue medicine, law, teaching or military training.

With enhanced education the entire country had greater potential to succeed. Napoleon also improved transportation and communication by constructing canals, ports and roads. He erected monuments such as the Arc de Triomphe, which helps incite French nationalism. Bibliography:

The on results or outcomes. In September 1989,

The Need for Federal Government Involvement in Education ReformFor centuries, generations of families have congregated in the same community orin the same general region of the country. Children grew up expecting to earn aliving much like their fathers and mothers or other adults in their community.Any advanced skills they required beyond the three R’s (Readin’, Ritin’ andRithmatik) were determined by the local community and incorporated into thecurriculum of the local schools. These advanced skills were taught to the up-and-coming generation so they could become a vital part of their community. Thelast several decades has greatly expanded the bounds of the “community” toalmost anywhere in the country or anywhere in the world for that matter.

Advances in transportation and communication has made the world a much smallerplace then the world we knew as children. The skills our children need torealize parents’ perpetual dream of “their children having a better life” are nolonger limited to those seen in the local area. It is becoming more and moreapparent that the education system of yesterday cannot adequately preparestudents for life and work in the 21st Century. These concerns have promptedpeople across the country to take a hard look at our education system and toorganize their efforts to chance the education system as we know it.There are two major movements in recent years whose focus is to enhance theeducation of future generations. The “Standards” movement focuses oneducational content and raising the standards of traditional teaching andmeasurement means and methods. The “Outcome Based Education” (OBE) movement isexploring new ways of designing education and changing the way we measure theeffectiveness of education by focusing on results or outcomes.

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In September 1989, President Bush and the nation’s governors called anEducation Summit in Charlottesville, Virginia. At this summit, President Bushand the nation s governors, including then-governor Bill Clinton, agreed on sixbroad goals for education to be reached by the year 2000. Two of those goals (3and 4) related specifically to academic achievement:* Goal 3: By the year 2000, American students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter including English,mathematics, science, history, and geography; and every school in America willensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be preparedfor responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our* Goal 4: By the year 2000, U.S.

students will be first in the world in scienceSoon after the summit, two groups were established to implement the neweducational goals: the National Education Goals Panel (NEGP) and the NationalCouncil on Education Standards and Testing (NCEST). Together, these two groupswere charged with addressing unprecedented questions regarding Americaneducation such as: What is the subject matter to be addressed? What types ofassessments should be used? What standards of performance should be set?The summit and its aftermath engendered a flurry of activity fromnational subject matter organizations to establish standards in their respectiveareas. Many of these groups looked for guidance from the National Council ofTeachers of Mathematics who publishing the Curriculum and Evaluation Standardsfor School Mathematics in 1989. The NCTM standards “redefined the study of mathso that topics and concepts would be introduced at an earlier age, and studentswould view math as a relevant problem-solving discipline rather than as a set ofobscure formulas to be memorized.

” The National Science Teachers Associationand the American Association for the Advancement of Science quickly launchedindependent attempts to identify standards in science. Efforts soon followed inthe fields of civics, dance, theater, music, art, language arts, history, andThe decade of the 80s brought numerous education reforms, but few ofthem were a dramatic shift from what has gone on before. Outcome-basededucation (OBE) is one of those that is new, even revolutionary, and is nowbeing promoted as the panacea for America’s educational woes. This reform hasbeen driven by educators in response to demands for greater accountability bytaxpayers and as a vehicle for breaking with traditional ideas about how weteach our children.

If implemented, this approach to curriculum developmentcould change our schools more than any other reform proposal in the last thirtyThe focus of past and present curriculum has been on content, on theknowledge to be acquired by each student. Our language, literature, history,customs, traditions, and morals, often called Western civilization, dominatedthe learning process through secondary school. If students

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