Palak RandhawaMr. ChiavettaIB History21 January 2018Chapter 8, Part 1 Key TermsBarbary PiratesWanted tribute to stop attacking ships.US paid them for protection.Lived on the Mediterranean coast. Judiciary Act of 1791Judiciary had the power of judicial review.
There would only be one Supreme Court. Didn’t have to send Marbury’s bonus during midnight.Midnight Judges16 judges that were added.
A part of the Judiciary Act of 1801Got their name because of Adams (signed appointments late).Marbury Vs. MadisonChanged how we interpret the Constitution.Law was declared unconstitutional (1803).
Gave the Court power of judicial review. John Marshall A Supreme Court Chief Justice. Made the decision on Marbury Vs. Madison.Was a smart, strong leader.
SacajaweaHelped Lewis and Clark.Native American that helped translate and traveled with them. Guided them through unknown lands. The Corp of DiscoveryAn expedition, by Lewis and Clark. Examined the Louisiana Purchase. Also looked at west coast lands.
War HawksWanted a war against Britain.They were in congress and nationalists. From South/West, wanted to fight in 1812. Aaron BurrHad a conspiracy to break off part of US. He was arrested, then let free. Wanted to make a new place in New Mexico/Louisiana.
12th Amendment to the ConstitutionCan’t vote for Presidential/Vice Presidential candidates separately.House of Representatives picks if there is no majority vote. Senate picks for the Vice President.The Non-Intercourse ActsNo trade with France or Britain. Issued after Embargo Act in 1807All other embargoes were lifted. Henry Clay and the American SystemWanted the National Government to protect businesses.Independence from Britain (economy).
Protection for companies via a tariff on imported goods. John C. CalhounSupported Henry Clay’s ideas. A leader of the War Hawks.
Wanted independence from Britain and its economy. Hartford ConventionNo more first party system.Involved with the Federalist Party.Led to the end of the Federalists.
The Era of Good FeelingsParty differences seemed to have gone away. New party divisions were created later on. After the War of 1812. Battle of New OrleansHappened during the War of 1812.
British try taking over New Orleans. British lost, and Jackson got popular. Dartmouth College v. WoodwardHeld in the Supreme Court in 1819. New Hampshire changing the board of trustees. Supporting original contracts precedent was set. McCullough v.
MarylandMade the new idea of implied powers. Held in the Supreme Court in 1819. Maryland can’t tax the Bank of America locally. Missouri CompromiseMissouri would be a slave state. Maine would be a free state. Any states north of parallel 36, 30 were free states. John Quincy AdamsHe was John Adams’ son. Was the secretary of office when Monroe was President.
6th President of the United States of America. The Adams-Onis TreatySpain gave Florida to the United States.Treaty was signed in 1819.
Spain no longer had rule of the Oregon Territory. Study QuestionsJefferson had many policies and main goals as President. One of his goals was to bring back the main principles that were found in the American Revolution. He noticed that the central government had gotten too powerful and that the states were the ones that were suffering because of this. Jefferson also wanted to reduce the public debt. He wanted to return the country to what it was as a Republican nation. To do this, he started shaking peoples hands and having his guests sit at a round table if they were eating dinner. To reduce the federal power, Thomas Jefferson wanted to cut down the expenses and excess that the government was spending.
Jefferson did this by making there be less actual government workers and employees. He shrank the army (military) a little bit to also help cut down the government spending. Lastly, Thomas Jefferson wanted to stop federal taxes to limit government spending as well. Jefferson no longer wanted any disputes and arguments with different parties.
He let many of the Federalist stay and do whatever job they were doing, even though he was going for a more Republican style. Using the federal money that they received, Jefferson tried to pay off most of the state debts to get everything working again. He wanted to get rid of the American national debt along with everything. The Louisiana Purchase was made by Thomas Jefferson when he was President in 1803. The whole territory was bought from Napoleon, who was also the ruler of France at the time. Apparently, he was taking a bath when the deal was presented to him.
It cost Thomas Jefferson fifteen million dollars. In the beginning, they were only buying New Orleans as territory and parts of the Mississippi river if possible for ten million dollars max. However, they were given a deal to buy the whole territory of Louisiana for about 15 million dollars (5 million dollars extra). Thomas Jefferson really liked the deal so he signed a bunch of treaties and bought the land with constitutional power.
The reason that Napoleon sold the land was because he didn’t need it at the moment and he need money to help him with the war they were having against Britain. Besides that, Napoleon thought that once he had conquered all of Europe he would take over all of America and gain his land back again. Jefferson bought it for obvious reasons. He knew that the land would be very useful if they wanted to establish trade with other countries, which is why he sent Lewis and Clark on an expedition to find a route from the Missouri river to the Pacific Ocean.
He also wanted to find new things to trade, which ended up being furs with native americans. The Louisiana Purchase also helped raise the total size of the United States from what it already was and it helped him open new ports in places like New Orleans, which would be very useful for farmers that wanted to trade internationally. Once President Thomas Jefferson had made the Louisiana Purchase, he was excited to see how America could benefit from the land. He wanted new ways to trade and create close relationships with the native Americans that were living in the Louisiana territory in order to establish trade with them soon after.
Thomas Jefferson made the Corps of Discovery, to adventure and find new information on the land that they had just purchased. Lewis and Clark were the co leaders of this certain expedition. It was very significant because it help America grow in size and grow economy wise by finding new skins (otter pelts, beaver fur) to trade, making America gain a lot of money. along with this Jefferson still had the goal of getting rid of the national debt in the United States of America. Jefferson also wanted to make their commerce expand out to the other countries of the world, so he gave Lewis and Clark the main goal of following the Missouri river and finding a route that would leave out to the Ocean, creating a passageway for trade. This was known as the northwest passage and Jefferson knew that it was necessary to find it. Another significant thing was that Lewis and Clark were creating a very accurate map that would basically map out the whole territory with the help of Sacajawea. This helped the American knowledge of the continent they were living in.
Aaron Burr was thought to be a good person because he was the vice president when Thomas Jefferson was in office as President from the year 1801 to the year 1805. Aaron Burr blamed people liked Alexander Hamilton. He blamed him that everything that was going on was Alexander Hamilton’s fault which ended up in Aaron Burr shooting and injuring Alexander Hamilton very fatally. He didn’t exactly kill Alexander Hamilton, because he would have ruined his life, lost his job as the vice president, and would had even gone to trial for killing him. Instead, he was later on trialed and charged for trying to hatch a conspiracy against all of the Americans, resulting in America separating and splitting up. He basically wanted his own country with his own rules and ideas.
People saw him as a traitor because he wasn’t doing the right thing. The conspiracy involved Aaron Burr and Wilkinson who wanted to split the Western side of America and parts south of the Ohio River. He also was going to attack Mexico, which Spain owned, but instead, Jefferson caught him and found out what he was doing. Aaron Burr was put on trial, but no evidence was found against him and he was set free later on. Jefferson was the one who declared war over Britain once again in 1812, because he thought that Britain felt they were still powerful and in control of everything.
He didn’t want that because after all, America fought for several years to gain independence and they won/signed a treaty so this was unacceptable. He started the War of 1812. The War of 1812 is also called the Second war of independence for America because Britain still thought they could control America after having lost the Revolutionary war to them.
They continued thinking they were in charge. Britain tried messing with America and France during trading overseas and thought they had full control of the citizens of America even after the revolution. They even started taking American ships for themselves. Madison got sick of what the British were doing so he ordered his navy to start taking British ships in return for America.
This would lead into the war of 1812, in which the British would try to make trading difficult for America overseas by blocking off all of their ports that they had on the coast for trading. The end result of the war was the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, which OFFICIALLY made America independent, because the British had now failed at their second attempt at making America join them again. However, the Battle of New Orleans did take place right after this independence was granted, though it didn’t do anything to affect the treaty that was signed. Madison’s nationalism was right after the war of 1812 and it showed that America was intact and everyone was still following the idea of independence even during the fighting of the war of 1812 against Britain. The War of 1812 likewise settled numerous and different issues in the legislative and the economy because no one was really fighting anymore during the Era of Good feelings. For example, the Federalist party was starting to lose support right after Jefferson took his place in office as President, but the Republican party still thrived and is still a party today. After the war, the Era of Good Feelings happened. The United States citizens were no longer fighting over anyone, even political parties weren’t fighting.
In fact, they seemed to be becoming one, which is why it’s called the era of “good feelings”. The US was able to continue making their country grow bigger at a faster rate because of this. The President and Henry Clay and his American System helped a lot throughout this time because they built another bank (national) and it made it so that the United States wouldn’t have to look towards Europe for their economy because they had their own economy now. a) John Marshall was a very capable Supreme Court Justice and his choices influenced a lot of the powers that the judicial branch has, even today. He made a very important decision during the Marbury v. Madison Supreme Court case and with this decision the court received the power of judicial review. Judicial review basically made it so that the court could decide if a law was constitutional or unconstitutional.
b) During McCulloch v. Maryland, John Marshall made another very important decision. This court shows us the actual difference between a strict interpretation vs a loose interpretation of the Constitution. Thomas Jefferson believed in a strict interpretation, but John Marshall showed that he followed a loose interpretation just like Hamilton, who was Jefferson’s rival. The court decision was that Maryland couldn’t tax the national bank because it was unconstitutional, even though it didn’t say that in the Constitution (loose interpretation took place). The Missouri Compromise was very important because it stopped the sectional strife being caused by statehood for Missouri. The problem was that Missouri wanted to be a state, but didn’t know whether to be a free state or a slave state. This decision was also unfair because at this point in time, there were a total of 22 states.
Half of these, eleven of them, were free states, and another half, eleven more of them, were slaves states. If Missouri picked either side it would be unfair. It would also make voting unbalanced because there would be more of one type of state than the other. The Missouri Compromise helped with this issue because it basically split the state into half, half of it being free and half of it being a slave state. An imaginary line was drawn at 36 degrees, and 30 degrees. Along with this, Maine would join the North and become one of their states. The Monroe Doctrine was proposed by John Quincy Adams and delivered by James Monroe who was President at the time.
The date was 1823. This doctrine told all of Europe that they were no longer allowed to interfere with American states and they can basically try if they dare. Any European powers could not come to America seeking new territories either. It was declared to stop the British from messing with the western hemisphere and because they weren’t following the Holy Alliance which had been made in 1815.
It had three major parts. In the first part of the Doctrine, the United States would no longer interfere with any wars that Europe was having because it was not their problem. In the second part, Europe could not start new colonies on the west side of the globe because it was America’s land now. Lastly, if Europe disobeyed the Doctrine, it would cause violence because it would be considered against them. The presidential ramifications were to make America the best country, better than all of Europe. This is shown today because America is indeed the most dominant country out there.