Preschool education, according to Magnuson, Meyers, Ruhm and Waldfogel (2004), refers to an education program provided by kindergartens and child care centres, which is offered during the earliest years of childhood at age of 2-6, ending upon the entry of primary school. Most of the parents in the society may think that the early childhood education program can enhance the learners’ academic performance such as reading and writing abilities while others may oppose it believing early education scheme may discourage the mental development of children in different areas like cognitive development, emotional and behavior controls (Barnett, 2008). Despite the improvements of the language proficiency, the mental development may be more important than the results in school since the psychological growth may affect the whole life of the learners. A learner may be harmed from the drawbacks such as weakened on the cognitive development like creativity and imagination on receiving early education plan. This essay aims to investigate the drawbacks of preschool education scheme by analyzing preschool education and moving on to mention the advantages and disadvantages such as literature capabilities and mental maturity respectively. This essay will end with a short conclusion that preschool education may bring negative consequences to the early learners.The most important reason that the parents would force their children to receive the early education may be enhancing the academic result in the children’s later study, especially in the reading and writing skills (Heckman, 2011).
Barnett (2001) states the preschool education scheme is highly associated with the reading and writing aptitudes, which enhances the language proficiency for future education. Maximizing children academic gains become one of the positive effectives of the preschool program in order to have the remarkable children’s academic outcome in the views of Early at el. (2007). Since the early childhood education may be regarded as a springboard to a prominent primary school, the preschool program may consider the academic performance as a higher degree of concern (Ho, 2008). As a result, the scheme of preschool treatment can improve study result of the learners.
One of the most important augments for receiving preschool education may be discouraged the cognitive development of the learners (Loeb, Bridges, Bassok, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2007). For whose aged only 2 to 3, their brain may not be well developed to receive much external information. According to Loeb et al. (2007), despite the positive results that are shown on the reading abilities, the psychological development may be weakened, especially for their creativity and imaginations areas in brain, since the children do not have the initiative on learning. Since the early education scheme does not encourage learners to discover their own interest since they do not have the opportunities for more interesting and creative activities in school (Guralnick, 1994). Kong (2005) also mentions that the development of cultural and creative industry does not grow well in Hong Kong since the education scheme does not consider the inspiration of the learners, which limits the imagination of the learners when they start the school life in the early stage. Another consideration is that the early learners may not be able to control their emotion appropriately (Blair, 2002).
According to the survey conducted by Batnett, Bodrova, Leong, Gomby, Robin, and Hustedt (2005), unprepared for learning in class can be the root for emotional problems in the future since they receive the education in early stage, which may not have the capabilities to control their feelings. Having unexpected performance followed by the negative feedbacks by both parents and teachers in preschool, which build a downward spiral that becomes increasingly difficult to reverse. Apart from the negative feedbacks from teachers and parents, the comparison between other children may let the learners feel depressed during learning (Locke, Ginsborg, & Peers, 2002) since some learners may perform well in class while some may not reach the expectations of teachers. Lacking the motivations by the positive feedbacks from teachers, learners may behave inappropriately in order to draw the attentions from teachers (Kamii, & Devries, 1993). Therefore, the children may not be capable in controlling their emotion