Primarily, ovarian cancer can be treated by surgical treatment or also known as surgery. Surgery or surgical debulking removes all the visible diseases in the abdomen consisting of small and big piles of masses. This surgery usually results in the removal of both tubes and ovaries, the uterus or hysterectomy, removal of the omentum or omentectomy which is a large fat pad that hangs off of the colon, lymph node biopsies where the surgeon removes lymph nodes in the pelvis and near the aorta as well as any other organs involved in the disease (Ovarian Cancer: Symptoms, Signs, Treatment & Survival Rates, n.d.). Hysterectomy happens when the surgeon removes the uterus and any surrounding tissue that is affected. It is called a partial hysterectomy if only the uterus is removed. Apart from that, in premenopausal women, menopause will begin immediately after this procedure. Other organs involved in the surgery which are removed are the small gut, large bowel, liver, spleen, gallbladder, and a segment of the stomach, a portion of the diaphragm as well as the expulsion of a part of the peritoneum. This can be an extensive surgery if all the visible nodules are removed which leads the patients to live longer. Furthermore, in order to accomplish an optimal surgery or also known as “optimal debulking,” at a minimum, no single nodule greater than 1 cm should be left behind. The patient needs to undergo a second surgery after going through a couple rounds of chemotherapy if a nodule which is greater than 1 cm cannot be removed. Plus, the surgeon will remove as much cancerous tissue as possible if cancer has spread beyond the pelvic area and this may include tissue from the gallbladder and other organs. Nordqvist (2017) states that this procedure can help to relieve symptoms and makes chemotherapy more effective. Thus, surgical treatment aids in medicating ovarian cancer by means of removing masses from the abdomen.
Next, chemotherapy is another way to cure ovarian cancer. Chemotherapy is the use of certain medications to destroy cancer cells. Cytotoxic medication delivers drugs which are poisonous to cells. These drugs prevent the cancer cells from dividing and growing. Chemotherapy is used to target cancer cells that surgery cannot or did not remove (Ovarian Cancer: Symptoms, Signs, Treatment & Survival Rates, n.d.). The treatment usually involves 3 to 6 chemotherapy sessions or cycles which will be given 3 to 4 weeks apart, to allow the body time to recover. Chemotherapy may be given again to shrink if cancer returns or begins to grow back again. Newer medications can directly target specific pathways or functions in cancer cells such as bevacizumab. The drug bevacizumab has also been used experimentally in the initial treatment of ovarian cancer. Unlike traditional chemotherapy, this drug limits damage to normal cells which reduces common side effects. A research concluded that if the cancer is not cured, it tends to return at a later time than expected even after undergoing chemotherapy. Thus, traditional chemotherapy regimens are used. However, this has not been proven to increase survival. Bevacizumab is a very good drug to use in ovarian cancer; nevertheless, the time of reaction is still being determined. Apart from that, often for a year, of a single drug, the maintenance of chemotherapy is a concept that gives long-term chemotherapy. This gives the idea that if the patient cannot be cured, the recurrence of cancer can be alleviated for a lengthened period of time. Drugs which have been studied with this approach include paclitaxel and bevacizumab. Nordqvist (2017) claims that nonetheless, it is not yet proven to show an increased survival using this method of treatment. Therefore, chemotherapy is actually an alternative way if the patient has not cured after undergoing surgery.