Psychological testing is a tool or a way used to gauge and predict a person’s personality. Since the business world is increasingly becoming competitive, employers are embarking on the use of psychological test as a way of improving their work forces. A recent report by the research experts indicates that, forty percent of the wealthy one hundred companies used psychological tests in the selection of employees.
Tests determining cognitive aptitude stay put as the most common form of mental testing used in the work place (Schmidt & Shaffer, 1990). A number of individuality measures identify psychopathology, while others distinguish people within the standard adult array of performance. MMPI is an example of character instrument that measures a number of personality characteristics (Schmidt & Shaffer, 1990).
A Company may use a computation of the extent of extroversion to decide whether a candidate’s individuality matches that of existing personnel. Similarly, MMPI might be utilized by the police division to monitor an interviewee’s psychopathology (Schmidt & Shaffer, 1990).
The tests mentioned above are predominantly used in financial and retail services industries. Billions lost in American commerce are attributed to worker theft. Employers are now seeking for devices that can prevent or detect employee theft. Counterproductive behavior and proneness to theft can be tested and envisaged using uprightness tests to comprehend the performance of aspirants.
Employee polygraph protection act1988), which permitted screening of an applicant using a pre-employment polygraph, was passed. However, some states restrict the use of the act i.e. screening should not be the primary basis of employment. Individuality-oriented strategies, medical measures and overt examinations are the most renowned tests (Schmidt & Shaffer, 1990).
Overt examinations are utilized specifically to envisage the proneness of a candidate to engage in theft and other abhorred behaviors at work. Tolerating thieves, accommodating reasons of theft and beliefs and behaviors which are very antisocial are some of psychological constructs whose attitudes are measured by overt integrity test (Schmidt & Shaffer, 1990). The tests consist of two parts; one part is a measure of theft attitudes while the other involves admission regarding theft (Schmidt & Shaffer, 1990).
Individuality-oriented examinations are linked to devices that are inclined towards normal-range individuality measurements. Developed by psychologists, they predict a broad range of counterproductive behavior at workplace. It determines character proportions which comprise: modifications, dependability, constancy, meticulousness and sociability; commonly used test include: outlook inventory among others (Schmidt & Shaffer, 1990).
Medical measures are examinations intended for scenarios such as psychopathology. An excellent illustration of this examination is the MMPI. It addresses varieties of other concepts which include: opinions, apparitions, faith, nuptial issues and societal attitude. Most of the items in these instruments may not be related to tasks performed within the constraints of the work setting (Schmidt & Shaffer, 1990).
Title VII of civil right act (1964) permits the use of integrity or personality tests in workplace. However, it is extremely illegal when the examination is performed with intent to leave out members of a definite protected assembly in the society.
According to segment 106 of the civil right acts (1991), it is very much illegal as an employer to adjust scores, alter an individual’s result or otherwise use different cutoff for employment -related tests (Schmidt & Shaffer, 1990). This is because an individual is from a certain specific religious origin, sex or gender, color and race or maybe his /her national origin.
In reference to EECO, an administrator may scrutinize the psychology of a profession hopeful as long as it is not a checkup. The examination queries administered to employment candidates have to be business oriented and sensibly intrusive i.e. confidentiality privileges of an occupation contender must not be irrationally dishonored (Schmidt & Shaffer, 1990).
Individuality or veracity tests in service have real benefits, though employers should determine the intrinsic worth and disadvantages of such tests. It may be of benefit if employers engage experts such as employment attorneys and organizational psychologists to analyze related legal concerns and provide crucial information related to test validity respectively (Schmidt & Shaffer, 1990).
2. MMPI screens candidates for psychopathological individuality traits or mental unsteadiness. It encloses 550 queries covering apparitions, matrimonial subjects, sacred, political issues and many more. MMPI/MMPI-2 is an instrument often used to examine students, paramedics, enforcers of law and facility workers in nuclear power (Plante, 2005).
It offers convincing report of individual’s troubles and distinctiveness in extensive scientific language. MMPI contours are simple to comprehend. MMPI contains three validity scales, ten medical scales plus a host of complementary scales.
It contains the following scales: scale 1; hypochondriasis, measures neurotic concerns over bodily functioning, scale 2; depression, measures poor morale, scale 3; hysteria, measures hysterical reactions to stressful times, scale 4; psychopathic, measures the extent of social deviation, scale 5; masculinity-femininity, measures homosexual tendencies, scale 6; paranoia, paranoid symptoms, scale 7; psychasthenia, measures abnormal fears, doubt, compulsions and obsessions, scale 8; schizophrenia, scale 9; hypomania, measure of elevated mood and accelerated speech and finally scale 0; social introversion, measures social tendencies to withdraw from social contacts and responsibilities (Corcoran, Kevin & Fischer, 2000).
Scores are obtained by registering each and every answer in at least one, and maybe two or three of the above categories. When an individual scores higher in any of the above categories, the higher psychiatric traits exists in him/her.
Employment inventory (EI), determines characteristics that underlie the range of productivity actions within the constraints of the work place (Corcoran, Kevin & Fischer, 2000). It has four pre-employment scales which have been proven effective for different jobs in many industries. Workplace personality inventory (WPI), contain 8-10 questions related to workplace and contains scales that are easily mapped to job requirement. It is short and can be easily interpreted (Corcoran, Kevin & Fischer, 2000).
3. Concerns about validity of MMPI were raised due to the fact that people taking the tests may fake result. Introduction of validity scale helped in the in curbing this problem. A research was done on 129 patients using this instrument in distinguishing between fake good, fake bad and actual mental health of the patients. Scales aligned towards Infrequency were critical in distinguishing fake- bad while other scales were critical in recognizing fake -good (Borman, kubisiac & Schneider1999).
This makes MMPI effective. It is easy to administer PDI employment inventory since individual just needs to read and understand the manual making it effective in administering.WPI is brief and simple to construe. It takes a shorter time to administer because it is easily comprehended. It is resistant to faking due to the fact that it contains fake warnings thus effective (Borman, kubisiac & Schneider1999).
Borman, W.C., kubisiac, U.C., & Schneider, R. J., (1999), an occupational system for the 21st century. Washington DC: American psychological association.
Corcoran, K & Fischer, D. (2000), D.S.W. measures of clinical practice. California: Free press.
Plante, G. (2005), Contemporary clinical psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Schmidt, A. & Shaffer, J. (1999), personality testing in employment. Findlaw.
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