Question can be instigated by emissions of green-house



§  Deluge/Floods

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This is naturally triggered
degradation of environment (e.g. deforestation) leading to extreme rain and
further promoted by human-caused hazards like obstructed/clogged drainage
systems. This results in injury, toxic environments, death, infrastructural
damage and epidemics. Other causes of floods include but are not limited to
environmental degradation, ineffective drainage and management of sewage

§  Drought

It is a naturally fast or
gradual onset marked by extensive periods of little to no rain and water eventually
leading to famine and poverty. It can be instigated by emissions of green-house
gasses into the atmosphere. Sub-Saharan Africa drought is associated with a
Southern Oscillation phenomenon and deforestation. Drought is worsened by soil
deprivation, excessive grazing, inadequate conservation approaches amongst
other aspects.

§  Severe
storms- i.e. tornados, hailstorms

This is climate phenomena
defined by hostile environmental disruption like hailstorms and tornadoes,
which are of the greatest aggressive and damaging conditions. Hailstorms form because
of extreme thunderstorm related convection and tornados result due to forceful rotational
air columns of air.

§  Wildland

These are abrupt blazes triggered
by natural interacting courses like ignition, extemporary mixing of coal and
peat and commonly by man. It results in destruction of environment, land devastation
and potential famine in the event of drought.  Atmospheric green gases are contaminated, and
soil erosion is triggered by hydrological run-offs.

§  Extreme
heat/Heat waves

Extended weather period marked
by possible humidity and high temperatures

This can cause power
breakdowns, ruin transport and water infrastructures, and wildfires in the case
of drought. It also results in deaths due to hyperthermia. People who are ill,
overweight and young are mostly at risk.

§  Tropical
cyclones and hurricanes

These are gradual
occurring aggressive climate conditions as a result of extreme change of
weather, increased sea temperature, marked by dangerous winds and rain showers.
This weather can cause death, injury and infrastructural damage. The severe
rain can cause floods hence destructing crops, initiate landslides and transmit

§  Dust

These storms are
instigated by wind blasts gathering dust, affecting atmospheric quality and
therefore humans, plants, animals and weather conditions. It can pollute water
sources, and cause respiratory infections and complications in humans.

§  Extreme

This is an atmospheric condition
caused by extremely low temperatures forming climates like snow storms, hailstones,
snow floods and frost. This can cause road obstruction and physical
environmental challenges, as well as injuries and death.

§  Fog/smog

Fog is a warm atmospheric
layer trapping inert cold air and smog is a combination of fog and contaminated
air (e.g. industrial smoke). These weather conditions can cause a lethal
atmospheric overlay leading to respiratory suffocation, infections and death.








population growth and urbanization- Is increasing at this rate and thus
developing countries are the most at risk to the impacts of a disaster.


factors- Political will and commitment to developing concerns. Socio-economic
elements which include aspects such as access to quality education, employment opportunities.
availability of and access to resources, access to infrastructure, basic
services and information.


financial and resource assistance inadequate

legislation or implementation.

risk management and preparedness is inadequate.


factors- Poverty increasingly compel people to stay in endangered areas and because
of this the environment becomes degraded due to deforestation.


factors- Poor education and insufficient knowledge prevent people to respond in
a changing environment.

belief that natural disasters are willed by God and are therefore inevitable.


factors- deforestation, cutting down of trees could lead to flooding and thus
drought lasts a long time.


between people is regarded as a hazard that can cause disasters on a large
scale and thus by displacement. People contest over limited resources, religion
and conceptual differences.

places- Island countries are underprivileged and have restricted access to
education, health and finances.




§  Better
quality access to services

§  Advance

§  Information

§  Training

§  Awareness

§  Enforcing
Government laws and regulations

§  Early

§  Preventative
and mitigating methods

§  Preparation

§  Reaction



Question 4:


a)      Disaster
management is a recurring system where the end of one stage is the start of the
next stage. Disaster management is an ongoing and combined process of planning
and implementation of measures aimed at:

Ø  Decreasing
and avoiding the risk of disasters

Ø  Mitigating
the severity or consequences of disasters

Ø  Emergency

Ø  Response

Ø  Rehabilitation


Mitigation- To avoid hazards from
developing into disasters or to minimize the effects of a disaster when they
occur, these measures can be structural or non-structural.




Emergency preparation- This phase is an
ongoing cycle of development, establishing, training, exercising evaluation and
improving activities, aimed to:

Ø  Accomplish

Ø  Effective

Ø  Enhance

Ø  Strengthen
the technical and managerial ability of governments, organisations and



§  Data,
training and communication tools

§  Constructing
codes that include project standards, material requirements, building certification
processes and inspection licenses.

§  Regulations
that include settlement development and land use forecasting

§  Funding

§  Amenities
such as hospitals, electricity supply systems

§  Project
and building procedures for non-engineered erections

§  Primary
warning systems

§  Ecosystem

§  Training

§  Strategic













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