Review of The Related Literature In this chapter, adetailed review of accessible literature on the barriers to femaleparticipation in higher education has been presented. This helped researcher todraw theoretical basis for the present study.EDUCATIONThemeaning of Education is “to know”. Human beings have been awarded knowledge tolive in the world. Firstly, knowledge enables man to achieve his or her goalsof life e.g.
beliefs, ethics and right and duties. This is known as religiousknowledge and Allah Almighty arranged it through prophets to convey this knowledgeto human beings. Besides, there are some other kinds of worldly knowledge e.g.mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Philosophy and Economic (Anderson, B,2004).
Educationis a social process by which balanced development of an individual can takeplace. Education grooms the personality as a carpenter mold a piece of woodinto beautiful shape. The process of education is not limited to man or womanbut the education of both has its own significance. Many aspects about theeducation of women are arguable (Laurence, C, J, 2010). Education is thebackbone of the infrastructure of any country. It is the most powerfulinstrument of change (Khan, 2007).
Educationremains one of the essential elements for the maintainable socioeconomicdevelopment of a society and a basic instrument for human resources developmentas it enables economic through the broader application of skills, Knowledge andcreative power of a society, decrease of poverty or difference, and also try toovercome gender differences between male and female (Sharma, S & Kanta, S.2006).Educationwas an important problem of our national life. Islam is the only religion,which in Islamic history whose courtesy, God fairness, and sacrifice was anexample for us. In the sub-continent people had awareness about femaleeducation because they know that an educated woman was a good protector of theculture of a nation ensures the security for the development of a new generation(Yaqoob, T, 2010 Female).
HIGHER EDUCATIONHighereducation is recognized as a capital investment and important for social andeconomic development. Higher education means all courses, curricula, textsinstitutes and faculty involved in teaching students beyond the intermediatelevel. Investment on higher education can be justified on grounds of social andeconomic impact. The existing system of higher education comprises of number ofinterlocking institutions. These include the federal and provincial ministriesof education and their attached departments, offices of the chancellor ofpublic universities, HEC and various universities and colleges.
Universitymanagement board comprises of number of vc, the registrar and deans asexecutive body. President hold powerful position, he appoints vice-chancellor,member of syndicate and deans. Syndicate is the supreme governing andlegislative body of the university.
The chancellor is the chairman ofsyndicate. VC is the chief academic and administrative officer of theuniversity. Registrar enforce academic and administrative policies as well asprepare institutional reports. (www.hec.gov.pk).
FEMALE EDUCATIONItbelieves that major cause of the lagging behind in general in economic and socialprogress in most of the developing country including Pakistan is absence of ahigher percentage of educated and technically qualified women”. Population offemale is a huge part of the country. We cannot develop our country if wecannot educate this large part of our population. The educational backwardnessof Pakistani people is most noticeable in respect of women education. In Pakistanpeople did not give importance about female education.
In fact, female consideras a burden on their father and brothers that’s why they did not educate theirdaughters or sisters (Chaudhry, S, I, 2007). Educatedfemales are more aware of their rights. If a greatest participation of educatedfemale’s in the economy and political process would lead to a better worldtoday as well as future generations (Afzal & Roshi, S, 2013). Women education inPakistanis status and standard particularly is at the lowest level. Females aredeprived because of multifarious socio-cultural and economic reasons and genderprejudices unable to play active role in the development of society (Faridi, Z,M & Malik, S, 2009)