Running need for care has changed over time.

Running Header: Economic Trends Impact on Health Care     Economic Trends Impact on Health Care Tamara DuffeckNortheast Wisconsin Technical CollegeJanuary 17, 2018                     ? When exploring how social, political, and demographic trend increase health care costs in the United States many factors must be considered. Healthcare costs in the United States is 17.4% of the gross domestic product. (Garneau,Zerwekh, 2017) As this number continues to rise we must look at healthcare as a whole and determine factors that we are able to change to provide fiscally responsible care. Nursing professionals must consider the economics involved in clinical practice and move to make changes to help in the growing healthcare cost crisis. (Garneau,Zerwekh, 2017) Health care utilization also has evolved as the population’s need for care has changed over time. According to the Center of Disease Control there are many contributing factors effecting the utilization of health care. Some of these factors include an aging population, new procedures and technologies, advanced understanding of disease processes and conditions, increased health insurance coverage and changes to practice patterns all play a role in the utilization of healthcare trends. (Bernstein, Hing, Moss, Allen, Siller, Tiggle, 2003) It is well known that populations at the lower end of the socioeconomic scale have inferior healthcare than wealthier populations. With limited resources and knowledge about health care insurance and the health care system as a whole lower income populations are at in increased disadvantage when it comes to utilization of healthcare. “For example, numerous studies have shown that neighborhood characteristics such as poverty and racial segregation are associated with increased risks of obesity and diabetes (Davis, Chapa, 2015).” The article further goes on to state that as nursing professionals we need to consider the socioeconomic factors that may go into patients’ overall health care decisions. Consider that many patients may not have the resources to utilize many health care options due to transportation, and or financial issues. Also the options that may be available in urban communities may already be overwhelmed with patients and may not have the resources or ability to receive more patients.  There may be a waiting period for many patients with serious health conditions. Another factor effecting health care is the increasing age of the population. Baby boomers are still under age 65, but as they age percent of elderly in the United States will increase rapidly. (Bernstein, Hing, Moss, Allen, Siller, Tiggle, 2003) With this increase comes increased use of healthcare and a decrease in the amount of workers in the healthcare field with many baby boomers retiring. The uninsured population also have a serious role in health care costs as a whole. According to the Centers for “Medicare and Medicaid Services, health care spending in the United Stateswill reach nearly $5 trillion, or 20% of the gross domestic product, by 2021 (Nickitas,2013)” This increasing healthcare costs results in an increase in the number of uninsured persons. Generally, the country’s healthcare institutions are required by federal law to provide emergency care to all individuals, regardless of their ability to pay for the needed services. “This negatively impacts the institutions by creating large amounts ofuncompensated healthcare costs.(Baidin,2010)” This impact effects the insured population by raising premiums and the cost of insurance to compensate for the uninsured. ?A need for health care reform shapes many political decisions made by the American public. Health care reform was a major factor when selecting a candidate in the 2016 Presidential election. Promises made by candidates to the public for improved health care and the repealing of the Affordable Care Act.  The American Nurses Association has written its view on the new health care reform. Stated in the article the ANA is against the current reforms and appeals to congress to not in act these changes. Stating “as it is currently written, the American Health Care Act restructures the Medicaid program, restricts millions of women from access to health care, and repeals income-based subsidies, which will disrupt health care coverage for millions of Americans. (Boyd, Allen, 2017)” The article further states “the AHCA, as drafted, would jeopardize the health of Americans with pre-existing conditions, eliminate the Prevention and Public Health Fund, which has effectively helped reduce chronic disease rates, and result in millions of Americans losing critical coverage for mental health and substance-use disorders. (Boyd,Allen, 2017)”. With the amount of the uninsured population decreasing due to the Affordable Health Care act mandating that Americans acquire and keep health insurance the population should see the effects this has on insurance policies. If America is not able to maintain an adequate population of patients with health insurance the costs will increase for the insured population. Uninsured patients account for the growing problem of health care cost increase. With lack of resources and without the finical means to acquire health care many patients only seek medical attention in the Emergency departments which further escalations the problem. We as nurse need to know what resources are available in our communities and direct our patients on how to properly use these resources.  ?Nursing strategies to provide cost effective health care include financially accountable care for the patient. One consideration to implement is early discharge teaching. By learning what the patients’ plans are during admission. (Garneau,Zerwekh, 2017)   Learning the patients’ resources they may or may not have available the nurse is able to give recommendation to the patient. The nurse may recommend the patient research their health care benefits to find out what their plan may or may not cover. Sharing and discussing alternative options that may be available if insurance is an issue may help the patient avoid receiving services they cannot afford. (Garneau,Zerwekh, 2017)  Also discussing with the patient before a surgery or procedure how much time they may require to be off of work, and if there is a need for follow up appointments or rehabilitation therapy needed. This allows the patient to plan ahead for such finical decisions. The most costly health care resource nurses can change is distribute of time. (Garneau,Zerwekh, 2017)  Nurses can acquire enhanced time management techniques and prioritization of patient needs this can save the institution greatly.    Systems theory is an approach to addressing problems. Systems theory may be considered as a focusing in of systems instead generalization of systems. (Charissa, Cordon, 2013)Systems theory has been applied in developing nursing theories and conducting nursing research. (Charissa, Cordon, 2013) System theory means that one part of the system applies and affects other parts of the system. This means that if one part of the system fails the other systems are effected as well. The systems are connected. Leaders need to be system thinkers in order to facilitate sustainable change in their administrations.Health care professionals need to look at what examples may have worked in other health care systems and address ideas that may work for theirs. Implementing small changes to improve care can have a major impact. One example of utilization management in health care that could be improved is preapproving point of care decisions. Costs to providers to administer payer processes have been estimated at $31 billion annually. (Zubiller,2013) The time and effort required to process authorization requests combined with a response time of several days or more – slows the care-delivery process, adds inefficiencies and frustrates relationships with providers and their payers. (Zubiller,2013) Improving communication between health care providers, patients, and insurance providers will save time and money for providers and patients. If this system could additionally be streamlined it would improve care. Allowing providers to discuss and review additional option to providing patient care. In conclusion a need for change in health care is more important now than ever. With a growing aging population, increased technology, and increasing costs. It is the responsibility of health care professionals to provide quality care at the lowest cost possible for the patient.  Working as a system to approach problems together gives an increased understanding of what we may implement to improve cost for the healthcare facilities and patients.          References Byrd, V. Allen, D. (2017)”ANA Strongly Opposes New Health Care Reform Bill” American Nurses Association, Inc. Silver Spring, MD Eckelman, M. J., & Sherman, J. (2016). Environmental Impacts of the U.S. Health Care System and Effects on Public Health. Plos ONE, 11(6), 1-14. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157014 Jarrin, Olga F., “An Integral Philosophy and Definition of Nursing” (2007). School of Nursing Scholarly Works. Paper 47. Garneau Zerwekh, A. Zerwekh, J. (2018) Nursing today transitions and trends 9th edition.St. Louis Missouri: Elsevier Bernstein AB, Hing E, Moss AJ, Allen KF, Siller AB, Tiggle RB.(2003) Health care in America:Trends in utilization. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics. Nickitas, D. M. (2013). Health Care Spending: The Cold, Hard Facts on Cost, Quality, and Care. Nursing Economic$, 31(1), 5-11.Baiden, A. (2010). The impact of undocumented aliens on healthcare: the case of a Northern New Jersey hospital. JOCEPS: The Journal Of Chi Eta Phi Sorority, 54(1), 5-6.Davis, S. L., & Chapa, D. W. (2015). Social Determinants of Health: Knowledge to Effective Action for Change. Journal For Nurse Practitioners, 11(4), 424-429. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.01.029Charissa P. Cordon (2013) System Theories: An Overview of Various System Theories and Its Application in HealthcareZubiller, M. (2013). Rethinking traditional utilization management. Health Management Technology, 34(9), 16-17.4 

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