Security terminology

Security
Terminology
Define the following terms:
1.Authentication – ability to identify who it is
a. ACL – (access control list) is associated w/ a given resource. Describes groups, users, machines and their permissions associated with that particular resource.

i.Token- one time only password key
b.CA- certificate of authority- creates certificates -system or entity trusted to generate and distribute digital certificates. Can be privately used or from a 3rd party e-commerce site. Verifies identity of user. Authentication method.

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c.RA- Registration Authority-issues certificates-RA verifies credentials supplied by an agent and then sends the CA an okay to issue a certificate.

d.PKI- Public Key Infrastructure- Policies and behaviors that surround the deployment and management of key pairs. How you issue two keys at one time.

e. Kerberos- Authentication method used by Microsoft. Uses 3 different protocols, listed below
i.TGT- Ticket granting ticket. Allows you to request resources on the network from servers.

ii.TGS- Ticket granting server. Accesses a particular network server for tickets.

iii. AS- Authentication Server. Equivalent to a morning check-in at security desk of a hotel. Checks the identity of a server.

f.CHAP- Challenge handshake authentication protocol. Was designed to replace the PAP. Communication between server and client proving identity.

i.MS-CHAP- Microsoft CHAP
g.PAP- Password authentication protocol
h.X.509- digital certificate that uniquely identifies a party. Standard structure of a certificate.

i.KDC- Key distribution center
j.Biometrics- Authentications based on human anatomy.

k.Multifactor- Authentication based on 2 valid authentication methods.

l.Mutual Authentication- Client establishes identity to server. Server provides authentication information to client to ensure that illicit servers cannot masquerade as genuine servers. Both parties have to authenticate.

2.Encryption- hiding data using algorithms. protection, method of code, algorithms, formulas
a.Asymmetric keys- pair of key values one public and one private.

b.Symmetric keys- single encryption key generated.


c.DES- Data Encryption standard developed by government.


d.Diffie-hellman- encryption algorithm named after its two creators.


e.IPSec- used for encryption of TCP/IP traffic. Method of encrypting any IP transmissions.


f.PGP- Pretty good privacy- mainly used in email less secure than the PKI.


g.RSA- Rivest-Shamir-Adleman- encryption algorithm named after its 3 creators. Using two pair keys.


h.SSL- Secure Socket Loader- used mainly on web servers to transmit securely via HTTPS://
3.Network protocols and organization
a.DMZ- Demilitarized zone- Zone used for public access. Used with FTP, web servers and DNS servers.
b.IDS- Intrusion Detection System- 2 types: Active and Passive
c.NAT- Network Address Translation- Appends to your logical port. Protects internal hosts. Used with proxy servers. Translates internal IP to Real IP. Uses unique port table. There is 65,000 ports
d.Tunneling- ability to go to 1 point to another as though you are a single proprietary line. 1 logical circuit. Used with Virtual Private Networks.

e.PPP- Point to point protocol.

f.PPTP- Microsoft product. Enhancement to point to point protocol. Called point to point tunneling protocol. Allows Point to point to be used in a tunnel.

i.MPPE- MS point to point encryption. Encrypts within a tunnel.

g.L2TP- Layer 2 tunneling protocol Sisco’s version of MPPE. Works with IPSEC. Works to encrypt with Ipsec.

h.RADIUS- Remote access dial in user service- usually used with Unix or LENIX systems. An authentication system.

i.RAS- Remote Access Server- provides users to dial in from anywhere. Allows you to connect with different location computers with dial up.

j.RPC- Remote procedure calls. Links to another remote program. Ability to access remoter computer and access a program and execute it on your own computer. Loads program onto your computer from another computer.

4.Attacks and detection
a.Sniffing – Looking at network traffic and deciphering it for propaganda uses.

b.Stateful Inspection- firewall protection. Inspects entire packet. Looks at words in the packet. Used with proxy servers.

c.Spoofing- Impersonating a computer or network.

d.Trojan horse- program that appears to be working fine and replicates good programs. Performs malicious acts to your PC.

e.Zombie (bot)- a logic bomb. A virus waiting for certain variables to be met before activating. Program does same thing.

f.DOS- Denial of Service- example- flood of pings. 1 person denied internet access.

g.DDOS- Distributed denial of service- Across the board denial of service. When an entire network goes down.

h.Backdoor- allows you to enter a certain area with different credentials. Easy way out. Creating another way to enter a system if your system gets hacked.

i.Man in the middle- MITM- used to gather information between hosts.

j.Brute Force attack- Guessing passwords. Trial and error.

k.Hijacking- take over someone’s computer. Aka-replay
l.Social engineering- Used by individual. Examples: looking over persons shoulder for password, dumpster diving, impersonating on phone, phishing through fake

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