Start of Islamic era A kind of government in the Islamic world at lasted for almost 13 century from the death of hazrat Muhammad (?) to the over through of the last ottoman caliph Abd al-Madjeed al-Thâni in 1924. Through the one and half decease of century the word of caliph turned but has been used at the time curse in June 2014 by an aggressive group considering themselves isls and also announcing the establishment of caliphate and they also proclaimed their leader Abu baker al Baghdadi. On the meanwhile this call rejected by most Muslims around the world.In 622 hazrat Muhammad (?) left his homeland city mecca move toward to the medina with his some best followers by order of Allah. When they reached medina people of medina call them (muhajroon) immigrants. The prophet (?) and the immigrants given the shelter by the citizen of medina after this they (people of media) also known as supporter (al ansar). Hazrat Muhammad (?) laid the foundation of Islamic government in medina.
After ten year in 632 he (?) died after a brief illness in medina. The prophet (?) left behind the young and vibrate Islamic government which uniting most of the tribe of the Arabian peninsula with medina its capital. It was censorious condition because prophet had both spiritual and political authority and it was really difficult for anyone to unite those two qualities.
But it was vital that Islam should continue to grow and that’s way a leader was needed. The People of medina and other followers thought the close companion of the prophet (?) is successor would come from one of them. The supporters and their tribe leaders felt that they were the people of city and greater in number and that it was their right to take leadership after prophet (?). The supporter gathered to decide which of them would be the prophet successor because the holy prophet was last prophet and there was to be no prophet after him. He was also leader of Muslims therefore necessary that after him there should be someone who lead the Muslim government and also solving the Muslims affairs chosen from us because we gave them salter and property share when they were alone. Someone told hazrat Abu baker (R.
A) about the meeting then Abu baker (R.A) and Umar (R.A) reached at meeting place and interrupted the deliberation. Hazrat Abu baker (R.A) brought the delegation at home and asked it is the no matter of medina city it is the matter of whole Arab and whole world we first accept the Islam and we also left ours houses, parents, and tribe for the separation of Islam and Allah and he also asked supporters about government and other Arab tribe who will not accept the government of (Ansar) supporter and he also added that the scarification of supporter for the Islam will not forget and their value is high.
then a supporter leader stand and said Abu baker (R.A) is right but he also added that the maximum adjustment that they could make in favor of the emigrants was that they could have two Amirs, one from the supporter (Ansars) and the other from the emigrants, hazrat Umar (R.A) said that Islam give the teaching of unity for one Allah, one Prophet, and one Quran.
It followed as a required result that the Muslim community should have one Amir. If the plan of having two Amirs was once accepted, other people would later lay claim to the election of an Amir from them. Such multiple Amirat would lead to the losing the strength of the Islamic polity after the long and hot debate one of leader of supporter arose and said to the supporter you were the first helper of Islam and this time you are the first hurdle in Islamic solidity at this supporter fell in deep thought and they seemed to hesitate to press their demand. Abu baker (R.
A) take stage and asked to the delegation will you accept the hazrat Umar (R.A) as a new leader for the government then suddenly hazrat Umar (R.A) I don’t put myself ahead of Abu baker (R.A) and he said you are senior and also lead the prayers during the illness of prophet (?) and you have deserve this succession. Then Abu baker (R.A) said so give me your hand and hazrat Umar (R.A) gave his hand for oath and other people also give the oath to hazrat Abu baker (R.A) in this way that problem came to end.
Realm of caliphate The new time began a new title written in history the first caliph of Islam and successor of Muhammad (?) was to be hazrat Abu baker (R.A). In the next the position of Abu baker (R.A) was confirmed as caliph. He was very simple and very Islamic man.
day after he becoming the leader he took his fabrics and move towards to the market some sahabha asked him where are you going he replied I am going to the market for trade they became very wonderful and asked why you are leader of whole Muslim world which there is no need for work for a leader he replied how will I fed my family. He was modest and very spiritual man. During his period many up and downs came which create the many problem for the new Islamic government like Musaylimah and 2nd issue is zakat when many Muslims severed from the zakat. On that time he fought against them during these wars many lives lost by Muslims and Muslims also lost 300 plus hufiz e Qur’an after the this he ordered the Muslims to collect the Qur’an and he also himself a hafiz then he arrange the Qur’an in a book form in his period Qur’an should write and arrange in the form of book.
During his time period he sent the Muslims army to the two world super power one is roman empire and other is Persian empire and mean while he strictly warn the Muslims army don’t destroy the property don’t kill the worshiper those worship in the temples and don’t hurt the women , children and the old men. In 634 hazart Khalid bin waleed leading the Muslims army against the Roman Empire on the other side Muslims army also enter in Persia. After two year of caliphate harazt Abu baker was died at the age of 61 in medina. 2nd caliphAfter the death of Abu baker (R.A).
hazrat Umar (R.A) hold the caliphate and became 2nd caliph in Islamic history. The era of hazrat Umar (R.
A) is expansion of caliphate and also known as era of victory. After few days he becoming a caliph Muslim army under the command of hazrat Khalid bin waleed conquered the damasks. Umar (R.A) also believed that it is victory for Islam not for Umar and Khalid.
Almost all of the Muslims were ready to give the oath to the hazrat Umar (R.A) during the time of selection of 2nd caliph .hazrat Umar was feel afraid about the love of the people. The first challenge for hazrat Umar (R.A) was to win over his subjects and members of Majlis al Shura. Umar has great experience how to win the people hearts for the betterment of Islam.
Hazrat Umar’s stress was on the well-being of poor and those people who did not enjoyed the life as other Arab rich can. Umar also tried to solve the conflicts reputation and relationship with Banu Hashim, the tribe of Ali, delivered to him his disputed estates in Khyber. He followed the order of 1st caliph over the conflicted land of Fidak, and continued its status as a state property. In the Ridda wars, thousands of prisoners from rebel and apostate tribes were taken away as slaves during the era of victory.
Umar ordered the general pardoned for the prisoners, and their immediate liberation. This made Umar quite popular among the Bedouin tribes. With the help of people, Umar took a great decision of declaring the Khalid ibn Waleed supreme commander of Muslim army against the Roman front.Political and civil administrationThe government of Umar hold the Muslim Uma together. hazrat Umar (R.A) divided his realm into states and some independent states like in some areas Azerbaijan and Armenia, these state claim them equal to the caliphate. The states were administered by the governors or Wali of the state, the selection of governor which was done personally by Umar. hazrat Umar (R.
A) was very intelligent in this matter.These states were also divided into districts, there were about 100 districts in the realm. Each district or main city was under the control of a junior governor or Amir, most of the time selected by hazrat Umar (R.
A) but some time they were also decided by the governor of the state. Harazt Umar (R.A) also introduced the administration system, regular army, garrison, cities political and judiciary system. He also made a successful network of intelligence, partly a reason for his strong grip on his bureaucracy. Hazrat Umar (R.
A) was a great and brilliant political leader and, as planer of the government solidity. Hazrat Umar (R.A) played very great role as a chief adviser of prophet.
During Abu Bakr’s era, he also played great role as his secretary and primary adviser. He is greatest known leader for the expansion of great and strong administrative structure of the government which keep together large Islamic stateVisit to Jerusalem in 637 CEAfter the two year of 2nd caliph Muslims armies conquered the western Jorden and they also invade the holy city Jerusalem but there is a problem the people of Jerusalem asked to the Muslim commander they only surrender themselves and city only in the front of supreme leader (caliph hazrat Umar) then he came to Jerusalem for their surrender. Christian community also invite the caliph in church to pay his prayer but Umar said to rejecting this invitation if I prayer here then the Muslims after me will want to pray here. Hazrat Umar also asked them I will not take this church from Christian and he also gave them a copy of insurance which is hanging on the wall of masjid named as Umar.
(This is guarantee of peace and protection given by the servant of Allah, Umar. He gave them assurance of protection for their levies, property, and church and the cross as well as the sick and healthy and the all its religious community) Umar also order the Jews to leave the holy city of Jerusalem after the Jews requested caliph give them permission of living in Jerusalem. Umar only allow the seventy Jews family to live in western Jerusalem. Hazrat Umar also ordered to build a canal connecting Neil to the red sea to reduce the risk of famine which effect the medina and its crops and the transformation of grain from areas those are rich in food or other things to areas suffering the poverty and famine and he also build a nine mile long canal for people of Basra to providing them clean and pure drinking water from the Tigris river and governor of Basra also build other canal for agriculture. Hazrat Umar lived in mud hut he is very simple man.
hazrat Umar also introduce the department of bait ul mall for poor , orphan , widows and old poor men . He allowed the tax free trade but tax on wealth and he also develop the courts for Jews and Christian community in which they solve theirs matter according to their own law and he also introduce the Islamic cleaner.In 644 he was leading the fajer prayer one of his slave stabbing the knife in his belly six time suddenly other people want to arrest the killer but he also stab the nine or ten people in the end he commit suicide. Before his death he also wrote a letter in which he mentioned about next caliph (hazrat Usman (R.
A). After his death a committee formed who chose the 3rd caliph among those six people which were mentioned by 2nd caliph in which hazrat Ali (R.A) and hazrat Usman (R.A) were also mentioned. In the end committee chose hazrat Usman.
3rd caliph In 644 hazrat Usman became 3rd caliph of Islamic territory he was richest trader before the accepting the Islam he also married prophet two daughters. He was intelligent and sharp merchant from the youth he has great experience about economy then he also increase allocation about 25% for the poor and needy people he also remove the ban on agricultural land which owe by conquered areas and increase the loan scheme for the people. Hazrat Usman (R.A) did not get pay from treasury and did not use it for his personal purposes even has such right during his role Muslims and non-Muslims also enjoyed the economic success. He also introduced the Islamic stamp on coin.
hazrat Usman (R.A) also brought the changes in army rank he also gave the high rank his dearest and trustworthy men he sent the army to subcontinent and Africa. He also improve the naval forces which defeated the Romanian naval forces open the way of trade. He marched the Muslims army towards the Spain in few month they invade Spain on the other hand Muslims army also invade the northern coastal area of Africa on the mean while Muslims invade the Andalusia in the east they reached in khorasan and invade it.
Muslims armies also reached now Turkmenistan and they also invade the Baluchistan Sindh and remaining areas of Persia.In 655 caliphate face many crisis one is more dangerous was against the caliph on this situation caliph held the meeting of his governors to solve the issue and people who are behind this will be ended with their bad goals. Rebel speared fast in the all states then caliph sent his private spy to investigate the rebellions and understand their problems on their return to medina they told the caliph about people views in some states people are satisfied with caliph but in Egypt they are against the caliph and they also want kill him. On the mean while the governor of some states sent army to medina for the protection of caliph but caliph reject their help. A time came when the 1000 people sent to medina to kill the caliph, on the daily basis riots increases in medina.
The main reason for arose of the anti-Usman movement is disputed between the Shia and Sunni Muslims. Other reason is that caliph only pay heeded on his relatives he also gave them high posts and the rebellions also want the Ali as a caliph.In 656 in medina caliph house guarded by his supporters in which Hassan and hussan ibn Ali were included during the riot the rebellion enter in the caliph house climbed through the back wall of house and they stab the caliph under his neck while he was reading the holy Qur’an. suddenly caliph wife enter in the room when she saw the people around the caliph then she started yelling and beaten her face with hands Then rebels left the house and the supporters of hazrat Usman (R.A) at the gate heard them and entered, but it was too late.4th caliphAfter the assassination of 3rd caliph hazrat Usman (R.A) one thing has clear the new caliph will be chosen by rebellions and they also gave one day for the appointment of new caliph.
They gave them three names in which name of son-in-law of prophet (?) was included. Many rebellions went to the prophet son-in-law ali (R.A) asked him to accept their offer but ali reject their offer and they also went to the other to member to accept their offer they also did same as ali did. When close companions of prophet Muhammad (?) went to ali and asked him to accept their proposal otherwise it go in wrong hands and there is danger of misused of caliphate but ali unwillingly accepted it and became the 4th caliph of Islamic government all people gave the oath to ali (R.A) and other two member also gave him oath in privately in this harsh condition ali became 4th caliph and he also replaced the governors of the states which were appointed by hazrat Usman (R.A) he appointed his trustworthy people, on this condition or act of caliph one governor of state Levant and also stand against the caliph they reject the ali (R.
A) decision. When he became the caliph on the next day he warned the people of medina about if anyone found in guilty he did not tolerated and he also added he only chose the caliphate to prevent the Islam from evil. The First FitnahThe First Fitna, 656–661, followed the assassination of usman continued during the caliphate of Ali, and was ended by Muawiyah’s assumption of the caliphate.
Hazrat Aisha prophet beloved wife, some of prophet close associates and the cousin of 3rd caliph (Muawiyah) and (Marwan) came to ‘Ali and asked to him to punish those rebellions who had killed Usman. They settled near to Basra state. The talks lasted for many days and the subsequent heated exchange and protests during the parley turned from words to blows, leading to loss of life on both sides. In the uncertainty the Battle of the Camel started in 656, where victory fallen into Ali,s side. Under such circumstances, a split took place which led to the first civil war between Muslims in Islamic history. Some Muslims, fight in the right of Usman 3rd caliph and they also considered Usman a rightful and just caliph till the end, who had been unlawfully killed.
On the other hand Some Muslims, who are known as party of Ali, believed Usman was wrong and fallen in guilty , he had forfeited the caliphate and been lawfully executed for his non-acceptance to mend his ways or step down; thus Ali was the just and true Imam and his opponents are wrong in their decision. This was not the position of Ali himself. This civil war created permanent divisions within the Muslim community regarding who had the legitimate right to occupy the caliphate Ali selected ‘Abd Allah ibn al’-Abbas governor of Basra and shifted his capital to Kufa, the Muslim city in Iraq. Following the Roman and Persian battles that lasted for hundreds of years, there were effective differences between Iraq, officially governed by the Persian Sassanid dynasty and the state of Syria officially ruled by the (Byzantine) Roman Empire. The Iraqis citizen wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be in Kufa so as to bring revenues into their area and reject the proposal of Syria. They persuade hazrat Ali (R.A) to come to Kufa and establish the capital in Kufa, in Iraq. Then Muawiyah the governor of Levant and the cousin of Usman refused Ali’s demands for obedience.
Ali opened consulting hoping to recoup Muawiyahs allegiance, but Muawiyah resisted on Levant independence under his rule. In this duration Egypt and Levant also separated from main caliphate made their governments.During 4th caliph reign he introduced many departments and run campaign against those people who found in guilty he also mentioned that there will no tolerance for who involved in finical corruption and he manage the rank in government according to caliph every one enjoy the same rights even if someone is governor. He also warned his governor about poor and rich people he mention that all are equal and treated them same as you treat rich. He also said Remember that displeasure and disapproval of common men, have-nots and depressed persons more than overbalances the approval of important persons and displeasure of a few big will be excused by the Lord if the general public and masses of your subjects are happy with you. The common men, the poor, apparently less important sections of your subjects are the pillars of Islam….
be more friendly with them and secure their confidence and sympathy. Ali (R.A) also imposed the central law of government in this law central government play important role or insurgency in any of the Islamic province. Hazrat Ali (R.A) also took back the land from the people because these properties belong to government which are granted to people during the hazrat Usman era by the order of him and he also divided the treasury among the people and ruled by people. .
Economic resources of caliphateThere were six economical resource of Islamic reignIn the Islamic state it was debt on every Muslim who is rich and also has land or other property like gold, cattle etc. its mean he has luxury life then he is also able to pay the zakat about 2.5% of his wealth to the poor if these thing or wealth are not used in year. Islamic caliphate also introduced the niasb its mean if minimum increase in property then it called nisab this wealth did not add into existing wealth. Jewelry, etc. Zakat is one of the Five Pillars of Islam and it is obligation on all Muslims who qualify as wealthy enough.
When Islamic state introduced the zakat mean while it introduced the system of jizya which is only for the non-Muslims its mean a tax taken from rich non-Muslims in every year. This tax did not apply on the poor, widows, children, monks, sick, and the slaves. From this tax government also help the poor and sick.Fay was the income from State land, whether an agricultural land or a meadow, or a land with any natural minerals reserves.Ghanimah or Khums was the booty captured on the occasion of war with the enemy.
Four-fifths of the booty was distributed among the soldiers taking part in the war while one-fifth was credited to the state fund.Kharaj was a tax on agricultural land.Initially, after the first Muslim conquests in the 7th century, kharaj usually denoted a lump-sum duty levied upon the conquered provinces and collected by the officials of the former Byzantine and Sasanian empires, or, more broadly, any kind of tax levied by Muslim conquerors on their non-Muslim subjects, dhimmis. At that time, kharaj was synonymous with jizyah, which later emerged as a poll tax paid by dhimmis. Muslim landowners, on the other hand, paid only ushr, a religious tithe, which carried a much lower rate of taxation. Ushr was a reciprocal 10% levy on agricultural land as well as merchandise imported from states that taxed the Muslims on their products. Umar was the first Muslim ruler to levy ushr.When the Muslim traders went to foreign lands for the purposes of trade they had to pay a 10% tax to the foreign states.
Ushr was levied on reciprocal basis on the goods of the traders of other countries who chose to trade in the Muslim dominions.Umar issued instructions that ushr should be levied in such a way so as to avoid hardship, that it will not affect the trade activities in the Islamic empire. The tax was levied on merchandise meant for sale. Goods imported for consumption or personal use but not for sale were not taxed. The merchandise valued at 200 dirhams or less was not taxed.
When the citizens of the State imported goods for the purposes of trade, they had to pay the customs duty or import tax at lower rates. In the case of the dhimmis the rate was 5% and in the case of the Muslims’ 2.5%. In the case of the Muslims the rate was the same as that of zak?t.
The levy was thus regarded as a part of zak?t and was not considered a separate tax.