SUMMARY India’sCommitment towards Children’s Rights is also a signatory to the WorldDeclaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children.
Inpursuance of the commitment made at the World Summit, the Department of Womenand Child Development under the Ministry of Human Resource Development hasformulated a National Plan of Action for Children. This conviction, expressedas the convention on the rights entered into international law on 2 September1990, nine months after the convention’s adoption by the United Nations GeneralAssembly. The Convention on the rights of the child speaks of four sets ofcivil, political, social, economic and cultural rights of every child. Theyare: The right to Survival, right to Protection, right to Development and rightto Participation (UNICEF, 1997).
Children are the future citizens of thecountry. Child Rights are fundamental freedoms and the inherent rights of allhuman beings below the age of 18. These rights apply to every child,irrespective of the child’s, parent’s / legal guardian’s race, color, sex,creed or other status. Astatement of child rights is a statement of adult responsibilities. It is theresponsibility of all adults, of government and the international community, tocreate and maintain the circumstances in which families themselves can protectthe rights of the child. Child rights needs to be understood by one and all,for which the information on child rights should be made available in alllanguages in the form of booklets, pamphlets, brochures, handouts etc.
Severalchild welfare programmes launched at different intervals highlight the priorityand importance of young child’s right to survival and development, protectionand participation, which is the responsibility of the state. Child Rightseducation demands appraisal of existing level of knowledge, attitude andpractices of child rights by various sections of people and the stake holdersof child welfare and development programmes. School personnel have a vital rolein protecting children’s rights. They can make a significant and positiveimpact on the lives of children through their contact with the childrenformally and informally. School personnel awareness of child rights isimportant in this context. Thepresent study entitled “Child Rights: A study of Knowledge, Attitude andPractices by School Personnel in Jammu” was undertaken with specifiedobjectives; 1)to assess among School Personnel, a) knowledge b) attitude c)practices; 2) to compare levels of : a) knowledge b) attitude c) practices; 3) To study theassociation of child rights knowledge, attitude and practices of SchoolPersonnel with Age, Sex, Education, Duration of Service and Training Status; 4) To study theextent of coverage of child rights in the teacher’s training programme; 5) On the basis ofthe findings and training needs of the School Personnel, to develop a trainingmodule related to child rights.
One of the educational zone of Jammu, i.e.Jammu zone were selected purposively. A sample of 500 school personnel wasselected from Jammu. A sample of 50 government and 50 private schools wereselected randomly using lottery method i.e. 50 administrative officers, 50helpers and 150 teachers were selected from these schools. Self-devisedinterview schedule was used to elicit general information and informationregarding International Convention.
To study the knowledge of child rights,rating scale devised by D. Sarada in 2000 was used. Child Rights attitude andPractices Self-devised rating scale was used to assess the attitude andpractices of child rights among school personnel. On the basis of pretestingdata, necessary modifications were done in the Child Rights Knowledge, Attitudeand Practices scale. For the in-depth analysis, Child Rights Knowledge,Attitude and Practices scale was divided into four areas i.e. Survival Rights,Development Rights, Protection Rights and Participation Rights with respect toitems present in the scale.
Each area was analyzed in order to conduct itemwise analysis. Frequency, percentages, mean, standard deviation, t- test andchi- square were used to analyze the data. Results obtainedrevealed that most of the government school personnel were in the age group of31-40 years. Majority of the private school personnel were in the age group of41-55 years. It was found that almost all the school personnel were female andPost Graduate.
Majority of the school personnel joined the service between2000-2010 and had 11-15 years of services. Most of the school personnel werehaving 11-16 years teaching/working experience at primary school level. Almostall the government school personnel were having 1-3 years and private schoolpersonnel were having above 6 years teaching/working experience at present school.
Majority of the school personnel were having knowledge of United Nations Convention on the Rights ofthe Child and insignificant difference was seen. It was noted that mostof the school personnel came to know about child rights through TV/ internetbut a very few percentage was show on books, friends, newspaper/magazine astheir sources of information about child rights. The data on basic facilitiesof the schools indicate that most of the private schools have separatebathrooms, water facility and water storage facility; separate rooms for staffwere available as compared to government schools. It was observed that majorityof the private schools have regular health checkups, regular maintenance of thebuilding, Repair of furniture/ building, proper facility for Library, properelectricity system, Sports equipment, Computer room, Activity room, Yoga roomand Counseling room as compared to government schools. Mid day meal facilities werenot there in private schools. Almost all the private schools organized fivetime in a year interactive session with children and parents-teachers meetingin their school but a very few percentage of government schools organized twicein a year interactive session with children and parents-teachers meeting due tolack of interest in children education and Busy Schedule of the Parents. Mostof the private schools reported that they form committee in their school.
Onthe other hand, governmentschools reported that they do not form committee due to lack ofresource, lack of time and lack of staff. Most of the government and private schoolsreported that they do not formation of child rights committee for children intheir school. Results on the Child Rights Knowledge Scale indicatedthat most of the school personnel were showing high knowledge regarding ChildRights i.e. survival rights, development rights, protection rights andparticipation rights. School personnel were found significantly different onitems Right to nationality, Right to Education, Right to followhis cultural practices, Right to Information, Child without families have aright to special protection, Right to non-discrimination, Right to protectionfrom illicit transfer and non-return and Right to socialsecurity.
Highly significant difference was also noted onitems Right to health and services, Right to practice his ownreligion, Right to travel abroad, Right to development, Right to wear what theywant, Right to protection from use of narcotic and psychotropic drugs, Right topeace, Right to privacy, Right to reared, Right to non-separation, Right toprohibition of fortune and deprivation of liberty and Right to work if theychoose withprivate and government school personnel. Most of the privateschool personnel were having moderateattitude level towards child rights. On the other hand, in governmentschool personnel were having high attitude level towards child rights. Chisquare values demonstrated that school personnel were highly significantlydifferent on level of attitude towards child rights. t-score analysis revealedthat on survival rights, development rights, protection rights andparticipation rights areas of attitude towards child rights indicating thatsignificant difference between government and private school personnel onvarious items of attitude towards child rights i.e. Children should have the right to quality child care, Every child has aright to legitimacy, Children should have the right to adequate clothing,Children should have the right to express ideas or opinions in schoolnewspapers, even if many teachers may not agree with them, Money from taxesshould be spent to ensure that all children receive a quality education whetherthey are rich or poor, Every child should be protected from sexual exploitation.Itwas also found that highly significant difference between government andprivate school personnel on various items Childrenshould have the right to receive dental care, Every child is entitled to haveeducation, Children should have the right to a quality education, Children should have the right to decidewhich school they will attend, Children should have the right to express theirideas and opinions, It is the state obligation to protect children from abuseand neglect, Children should have the right to counseling when they are havingemotional problems at school and Sale,trafficking and abduction of children should be prevented by the state,Children should have the right to an adequate breakfast.
This indicatesthat school personnel were having strongly agree attitude towards child rights. Results highlightedthat on practice related to health anddevelopment rights, in both government and private school personnelreported that available of health services for children in their school andalso aware of these services. They provide health and hygiene facilities tochildren i.e.
safe drinking water, sanitation facilities and cleaned classroomand teaching areas and highly significant difference was found betweengovernment and private school personnel. In government schools, they do notorganize health camps for children due to lack of financial and lack offacilities where as in private schools, they organized the health camps forchildren twice in a year and significant difference was also seen. Resultsindicates that in government school personnel responded that they trackedchildren’s growth through observations where as in private school personnelused health check-up method to track child’s growth and highly significantdifference was observed. Results further indicate that in both government andprivate school personnel reported that they give freedom to children to expresstheir ideas.
Results showed thaton practice related toeducation rights revealed that in both government and private school personnel statethat they implement Child rights education through recreation activities, moraleducation and cultural programme. Highly significant difference was foundbetween government and private school personnel. It was also found that they donot implement child rights education due to lack of resources, lack ofknowledge, lack of training, overloaded curriculum and paucity of time. Theyimpart child rights information in curriculum areas through integratedapproach. School personnel reported that they display visual aids on childrights like social/health and hygiene and fundamental duties. It was observedand reported that they display only school activities on school board andsignificant difference was seen.
The findings of thestudy on practice related to protectionrights, in private school personnel were of the view that they giveguidance service for children on academics, discipline, punctuality andregularity, personal issues and health and hygiene. In both government andprivate school personnel reported that unavailability of trained counselorsthey do not provide counseling service for children. Significant difference wasseen between government and private school personnel on guidance and counselingservice. In government school personnel reported that they never form socialsecurity committee due to lack of financial, lack of faculty and lack ofresources.
On the other hand, in private school personnel stated that formsocial security committee in their school might be due to maintain order anddiscipline, Entry ofevery strangers and visitors in the entry register. Significant difference was also found betweengovernment and private school personnel. In both government and private schoolpersonnel take steps regarding discrimination/inequality i.
e. equally treateach child, and co-education delivered. Results revealed that in bothgovernment and private school personnel take necessary measures to controlsubstance use in their school through observation/CCTV, never allow stranger,counseling and drug prevention education and report immediate to the higherauthority. Finding revealed that on practicerelated to participation rights, majority of the private school personnelreported that they organized Quiz competition, Poem recitation and Fancy dresscompetition activities for children participation in school/classroom.
Therewas significant difference between government and private school personnel. Inprivate school personnel organized safety and protection issues relatedactivities for children in their school. Most of the government and privateschool personnel arranged dance, skit/drama, singing and role play activitiesin their schools and also shows that significant difference between governmentand private schools personnel.
All the government and private school personnelorganized health and hygiene committee, sports committee, cultural committeeand discipline committee for children in their school. In both government andprivate schools, majority of the school personnel reported that forced childrenadopt an English language in the school. Highly significant difference betweengovernment and private school personnel regarding children to adopt a specificlanguage.
After overall analysisof the results, association of ChildRights knowledge, Attitude and Practices of school personnel withindependent variables. It was concluded that there washighly significant association between Age, educational qualification, Durationof service, In-Service participation in training course, Attended child rightstraining course and Child Rights Knowledge of school personnel. There washighly significant association between Age, educational qualification andattitude towards child rights of school personnel. Significant association betweenduration of service and attitude of child rights among school personnel.Insignificant association between knowledge, attitude of child rights and sexof the school personnel. Result also indicates that there was highlysignificant association between Age, Sex, Educational qualification, Durationof service, Training status and on area of Practicesrelated to health and development rights, Education rightsProtection rights and participation rights among Administrative officers andteachers.
There was highly significant association between duration of serviceand various items of practices of child rights among helpers. Result was found that on TrainingStatus of the Respondents, majority of the government and private schoolpersonnel have not received any training courses before joining the school.Significant difference between government and private school personnelregarding participation in training courses before joining the school. Most ofthe government school personnel have attended in service training courses.School personnel have participated in micro and macro teaching, subjectknowledge, induction level training and basic knowledge skills training. Theyhave attended 15 days, one week, 1-3 month and 3-6 month training courses. Theyhave participated training course organized by Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, StateInstitutes of Education, Rastriya Madhimik Shiksha Abhiyan and DistrictInstitute of Education and Training and highly significant difference betweengovernment and private schools personnel regarding in-service training courses.Almost all the administrative officers, teachers and helpers have not attendedchild rights training course during their service.
Majority of the governmentand private school personnel have interested in receiving child rights trainingand highly significant difference between government and private schoolpersonnel. Onthe basis of research findings, a trainingmodule related to child rights was developed. It was found during study thatthe school personnel training programme did not cover child rights component. Thestudy further affirms that there is a great need to educate the schoolpersonnel on child rights by including this topic in their training programme.Therefore, training module was developed on the basis of two days trainingprogramme to meet the objectives. This training module consists of a three sub-training module.Each of these sub-module attempts to address the current needs of the schoolpersonnel in institute, this module clearly outlines the training sessions withinteractive learning activities. Sub-Module one depicts the understanding of rightsof the child and describe how children and childhood are understood,Children’s needs and rights, rights based approach.
Sub-Module two- type of rights (54articles) shows that how schools can create a greater awareness andunderstanding of UNConvention on the rights of the child, 54 articles, committee on Rightsof the Childand OP3CRC communication amongstthe school community. Sub-Module third- Implement children’s rights inpractice illustrates that how to promoteand create awareness of child rights in schools, special laws,Government schemes /Programmes for the welfare of children based on ChildRights. Hence it is imperativefor every school personnel to be aware of the many prevailing social evilswhich impact adversely on the development of children, and also of the legalprovisions which exist and which can help in safeguarding the interests of thechild and thus contribute to the promotion of rights of our children.
To sumup, it can be concluded from the findings of the present study that overallschool personnel were having high level of knowledge and attitude towards childrights on various areas i.e. Survival rights, Development rights, Protectionrights and Participation rights. On the part of Practices of child rights, Children’s rights education is the teaching and practice of children’s rights inschools and educational institutions, as informed by and consistent with the UnitedNations Convention on the Rights of the Child.When fully implemented, a children’s rights education program consists of botha curriculum to teach children their child rights, and framework to operate theschool in a manner that respects children’s rights.
Overall, findings suggest a need to heighten awareness ofchildren’s rights and needs, which can improve attitudes towards the treatmentof children. They concluded that efforts to heighten awareness and attitudestowards children’s rights are needed across society and in key sectors toenhance children’s lived experience. Therefore, schoolpersonnel knowledge on Child Rights needs to be improved. Though they possess afavourable attitude towards child rights, in practices especially with regardto Survival rights, Development rights, Protection rights and Participationrights, they are not implemented. Unless Child rights are practiced, mereknowledge and attitudes are not of any value. SUGGESTIONSAND RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON THE STUDY SUGGESTIONS Orientation meeting: Allschools may be asked to organize an orientation meeting of staff and parents ofchildren at the beginning of the academic session.
The participants of themeetings may include local NGO, Block Education Officer and District EducationOfficer also. The participants shall be sensitized on the ‘rights of children’to respect, care, health, and an education free from fear. The parents’ opinionshould be actively sought. Suggestion Box: Everyschool shall have a suggestion box which is accessible to everyone- students,teachers, parents and school staff.
This box should be opened regularly. RedressalMechanism: In cases of child abuse a committee constituting a 3-member enquiry team of which 2 are women and one shouldbe from an NGO not working in that school should conduct investigation and submit reportwithin 15 days, in which the team can recommend that the accused be warned, orsuspended, or dismissed. In all cases the accused person shall be asked not todischarge his/her duties pending enquiry. Social Audit: Acommunity social audit of the school will increase awareness amongst thecommunity about the school practices, regularity of teacher attendance andteaching, condition of school amenities, etc. Knowledge being the first steptowards action, this will also build ownership amongst the community for theschool. Capacity development of students: Children’s Club, Children’sMovements and Networks, Children’s Councils, Children’s Parliament must be established in every school toprovide children with an opportunity to learn about their rights andresponsibilities, develop mediation skills and participate in the function ofthe school.
Co-curricularand extra-curricular activities: For the co-curricular,extra-curricular, annual day celebration, sports day and other events everystudent should be given chance to participate. Basic Infrastructure of the Schools:Therecan be no compromise on providing basic amenities to the students like cleanand separate toilets for boys and girls, soaps in the toilets, health centre, periodic health checkups,outdoor safe play area, first aid box, adequate seating arrangement in theclass rooms and child friendly policies. A counselor is a must in every school: Totackle mischievous or unruly behaviour, students should be sent to the schoolcounselor rather than giving them any type of punishment that would adverselyaffect their psyche.
Schools need to create an amiable atmosphere wherestudents would feel conformable. Provisionin School Textbooks:Aprecise statement on the ‘rights of the child’ along with the provision of aChild Help Line Service should be printed on the first page of every textbookthat children use from Class IV onwards, so that it is easily accessible to anychild. Social Science and Language textbooks can have a chapter devoted to theissue with available information on redressal mechanisms.
Pre-service Courses of TeacherEducation: These would include courses offered byDIETs and CTEs, University Departments offering Bachelor’s Degree in TeacherEducation, other certificate and diploma courses, including privateinstitutions.· In-service Teacher Education: Allin-service programmes need to have a dedicated focus on issues of child rights,discipline and corporal punishment. Need to create forums for teachers todiscuss issues related with discipline and the difficulties teachers face indealing with diverse and unpredictable behaviour patterns. Notice Board: Anotice-board in every school must display the names and contact details of thePTA members, BDO and DEO. PTAs to be encouraged to act immediately oncomplaints by children before further injury is caused. RECOMMENDATIONS To enhance the knowledge of Schoolpersonnel regarding Child Rights and other issues related to children.
Government and Non-Government agencies conduct to awareness generationprogramme Sensitization workshops should beconducted for in service School personnel. Child rights education should be made apart of the school curriculum, because a good number of school personnel areavailable to teach them with a knowledge base. School personnel can be mobilization parents, children and other members ofsociety for the awareness of rights ofchildren Another study on similar aspects can becarried on other groups of society who are directly or indirectly deal withchildren.