Sunflower is a very significant oilseed crop over the world after soybean (Nehru et al., 2000). Sunflower is grown on 21 million hectares over theworld (Wani et al.
, 2010) .Sunflowerseed have large quantity of oil ranging from 40-45 % and its oil have 45-50% linoleinic acidand oleic acid (wang et al.,1997). Its oil is best because of mild taste, large amount of unsaturated fatty acid, light incolour and rich in proteins. In Pakistan there is a scarcity ofsuperiority edible oil. About 60% oil from Cotton, 18% from Sunflower andremaining oil comes from Brassica family. We are importing 70% of oil for ourrequirements, which is 2.205 million tons and we are expending 136 billionrupees on this (Govt.
of Pakistan, 2015-16).In Pakistan every year oilproduction comes to different means its production never sustainable. It just30% fulfill our needs and every year we import oil from different countries andthat’s why we focus on sunflower because it is short duration crop of about90-120 days . Sunflower has a capacity to meets our demand and it can fulfillthe gap between our production and requirement.
Sunflower is a cross pollinatedcrop and has high heterotic value and heterosis is very important for hybriddevelopment (Cheres et al., 2000). Hybrids are more stable, highly yielded,more uniformity and they are more resistant to different diseases and moretolerant to different environmental conditions (Andarkhor et al., 2012). In plant breeding generalcombining ability and specific combining ability are both parameters which havevery importance for hybrid development. By estimating both these properties wecan evaluate hybrids which have high yield as well as high oil content. Byhybrid development we can full fill our oil requirements.In Pakistan sunflower hybrids arenot sustainable because we are not using our local means that’s main reason weare focusing on local hybrids which can adjust naturally to our environmentalconditions.
This trial will be conduct to evaluatethe, heterosis on average parent as well as superior parent for,various morphological and physiological qualities of the sunflower,hybrids which will be made from the lines acquired from USA. We are expectingthat after our experiments we will be able to discover high yielding and localadjustable hybrids to our environmental conditions. In this way we can fullfill our oil requirements as well as we can save lot of money for importingeatable oil and we can maintain our economy. I. REVIEW OF LITERATURE:Mijic et al.
, (2005)reported combining ability in sunflower for plant stature on different sites. Resultsshowed that the lines l-103 were the best combiner for head diameter and linesl5 were finest general combiner for height and on altered places on whichexperiment was conducted. The hybrids 5-A×103-B and hybrids 101-A×302-B wereshown lowest specific combining ability for plant height on differentlocations.
The hybrids 5-A ×302-B and 103-A × 219-B exhibit best generalcombining ability for head size.6 CMS lines and 6testers under L×T for development of sunflower hybrids were used by Habib etal., ( 2006). The experiment was carried out during spring season of 2001 andhighly significant results obtained among the genotypes for all charactersunder research.
ORI-3×RL-77 presented highest positive heterosis for stem girthand ORI-3×RL-88 showed heterobiltosis for stem width. Crosses ORI-3×RL-77 andORI-29×RL-84 perform better then their mid and better parents for head diameterrespectively. ORI-20×RL-77 had maximum value for heresies as well as heterobiltosisfor plant stature.
ORI-3×Rl-77 showed positive heresies over their normal aswell as better parent for total number of seed/head and also for total yield.Hladni et al., (2006)reported that there is significance in non-additive gene action for oilcontents by using combining ability analysis during 2006.
Results weresupported by fraction of SCA /GCA. NS-GS-4 showed positive GCA for oilcomponents and line NS-GS-5 showed negative GCA for oil components. RHA-R-PL-2/1× NS-GS-6 hybrid indicated positive SCA.Jan et al., (2006) werestudied combing ability of different traits like achene production, total oilyield, 100 SW and other associates traits.
He reported that there is aninvolvement of additive as well as non-additive gene action in the expressionof total number of seed/plant. Result indicate that line TF-1 exhibited generalcombining ability for 100 seed weight and head diameter similarly inbreed lineARI showed highest GCA for seed yield per hectare and also for seedweight/plant. The results also showed that PESH × TF-335 hybrid was good combiner for total yield per hectare. Turkec & Gokosy(2006) studied GCA and SCA for two traits like 100 SW and total seeds per head by using line × testeranalysis.
Results showed that parents CMS 11/2, RHA 66/4 and CMH 47/1 exhibitedas a best combiner and hybrid CMS 47/1 × RH 71/1 , CMS 11/2 × RHA72/3 givinghighest GCA and SCA for achene yield and others related constituents.Khan et al., (2008)accompanied a trial and used five CMS lines and five Restorers by L×T mutingdesign under different sites and detrained mode of gene action as well asstrengthens of combining ability.
Characters were following fifty percent flowering, number of days ofmaturity,100 SW, oil contents etc. All parameters exhibited significant resultsbut GCA strength were less than their SCA effects and their ratio exhibitnon-additive gene Action.Machkowa et al., (2011)conduct experiment to study different parameters example plant structure, oilpercentage, 100 SW, production output of achene and head diameter. Resultshowed that significant additive effects were shown dominant for plantstructure 100 seed mass.
Lines Sa well as line 2A were good combiner for 100 SW and oil percentage and both theselines revealed that these were the best parents for hybridization.Kumar et al., (2012)studied combining capability in sunflower which indicated that line Morden and EC376186had positive GCA for head diameter and a production and mordan line hadnegative GCA for blooming days and days of maturity. Similarly line EC376235had positive GCA for %age of achene filling and output of achene GCA for daysto maturity and diameter of head, there were positive GCA shown by EC376235 andMordan for oil percentage.
Negative SCA showed by hybrids like EC376235 ×Mordan and maturity as well as for days to blooming both these hybridsexhibited good specific combining ability for oil yield.Saleem-ud-din et al.,(2014) studied genetic variability of differtent traits of yield for manygenotypes of sunflower under L×T analysis. They studied combining ability forall traits under experiment. They studied combining ability for all traitsunder experiment. They studied GCA, SCA and also RCA ofall that traits. Hybrids were developed by crossing 4 CMS lines and restorerlines along with parents and variance of interactions for general combiningability and specific combining ability were significant for all traits under experiments.
Strength of general combining ability for CMS lines and testers were highestthen SCA which expressing assistive mode of gene action for all character.Maximum GCA effectsshowed by both Rh-P-71 & CMS-H-A54among different lines and Testers respectively. They consider that both werebest combiner and additive gene action were present in both combiner.
Moreoverthey can be used for hybridization todevelop different characters which were correlated to yield. Hybrids H-A-99 × Rh-P 74 and H-A-101 × Rh-P 73 showedpositive results for head diameter and achene yield and they found as a goodspecific combiners for both characters.Nasreen et al (2014)used 6 cm CMS lines and six restorer lines in line × tester design and reportedthat hybrid obtained from these lines their mean values for total proteincontents, oil yield and fatty acid as well as proteins CMS-64 CMS-53 , CMS-55—2-2-1 exhibit as a bestcombiner for protein as well as for total oil contents among the hybrids, CMS-NDMTCX,RHA-295 and CMS-53 × ST-18R showed good SCA for both protein as well as fortotal oil contents. To quality was highest for SCA then that of generalcombining ability.
They reported that there were non-additive mode of geneaction for yield related traits and line × tester was major contribution forstudying inheritance pattern for different parameter to improve heterobiltosis. II. MATERIALS AND METHODThe trails will be carried on Plant Breeding& Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Rajawala Farm Faisalabad.Different 3 B lines and 4 CMS A lines will be sown in RCBD within 3duplications. Distance between plant-plant will be 25cm and R×R distance willbe 75cm. The trial constituents will be sow in two season autumn 2016 andspring 2017.
During autumn first 4 cytoplasmic male sterile lines will becrossed with 3 B lines in line × tester to develop hybrids. Then in next season2017 data of following morphologically and physiological traits will be taken.1) Heightof the Plant2) Numberof leaves / plant3) Leafarea 4) Stemdiameter 5) Headdiameter 6) Numberof whorls of achene / head7) Seedweight /Plant Then analysis of inconsistency accordingto Steel et al (1997) to appraisal heterosis and heritability by analyzingconsiderable difference and non-significant difference b/w parents and crosses.After that calculate according to Kempthorne (1957) to found out variabilityand then results will be evaluated to find out best combination.