Supervision theories and practices begin rising assoon as experts started to coach other experts. Some academic models havedeveloped to explain and support professional supervision. Good skill as a managerdoes not mean they have good ability for supervisor, and when supervisee/supervisor aredisagree, conflicts may occur.
The new models of supervision have incorporatedtheories from psychology and other disciplines, for one-to-one or groupsupervision. The supervision develops into more purposeful and different typeof models appears, like developmental models, integrated models, and agencymodels.1.
Understandthe purpose of supervision In the Health and social care sector supervisionis the procedure where a care worker can speak to someone who is trained to recogniseany emotional or behavioural changes in the worker that could be due to a failureto manage issues with one or more service users. The supervisor is alsoresponsible for introducing new practices and procedures, developing andrefining various techniques to address the everyday jobs involved, andinforming customers of alternative methods and / or new practices as well asinternal changes. The supportive and educationalsupervision process is expected to assist carers in applying the theory andtechniques of personal approach of care and keep good practise. The supervisoris responsible for monitoring the work of their supervisee, in roll to safeguardthe individuals from bad practise. A supervisor has to observe for symptoms ofbad practise in the care workers.Supervision is an understanding that the careworkers have to discuss about their work on a regular basis with the named supervisor.The duty is to work together to guarantee the well being of the individualsreceiving their care.
The supervisor’s main responsibility is to guaranteethat their clients are receiving the needed and bets care. By ensuring the carestaffs constantly develop their knowledge and good practice in all areas. Thesupervisor is responsible for detecting any symptoms of bad practise in thecare staff.
The supervision has to follow these stages:-Evaluation by: assessment of the care staff; developingsystem of self-review; quality assurance; best practice; result of the providecare (appreciation and complaints); recognize the risk for staff and clients; referrals; follow up on client progress and wellbeing; helps a caregiver to look at their strength and weakness.-Education by: setting achievable development goals; providing courses and trainings;leading as model; explains the logic of recommended intervention and inverse; skillsprogress; explanation significant actions in the rehabilitation; changing theway of thinking; top up acquaintance and knowledge; facilitate team links; responsibilityof care and good practice .-Administration by: procedures and guidance; rulesand regulations; documents; contacts with professionals; task scheduling; documentationmaintenance; insurance.-Support by: supporter; advocacy; dispute theproblem; deal with the goals; enabling; validation; accessibility; enhancingthe rights; self support. Structure patterns in organising of supervision define several types of supervision.
-Agency Model of Supervision -Kadushin (1976) describes a supervisor assomeone “to whom authority is delegated to direct, coordinate, enhance,and evaluate on-the-job performance of the supervisees for whose work he/she isheld accountable. In implementing this responsibility, the supervisor performsadministrative, educational, and supportive functions in interaction with thesupervisee in the context of a positive relationship”.In supervising Kadushin’s main idea, the workerknows how to do his job well and to be responsible for the work done and to expandhis/ her skills during education and advice.
The aim is to raise awareness andimprove levels of qualification by encouraging reflection and research work.Focusing on the activity rather than on the worker,it allows supervisors to listen to constructive criticism instead of feelingcompelled to defend themselves from a personal attack. This model has quite a few strength and flexibility,and open to examination and testing. It is also demanding equally for thesupervisor and supervisee. This style can be customized to meet many requirements.This model may be unacceptable when the supervisor has little experience and cannotprovide appropriate guidance and support.
-DevelopmentalModels of Supervision – In Erskine the supervisory development model, the mainidea is that workers and managers are constantly developing and mature; likeall the individuals we grow and progress,and this progression go through stages and phase that are expected. Generally,supervisory development models describe the gradual stages of the developmentof worker from new to expert; every stage consists of distinct features andskills.Erskine (1982) identifiesthree stages in the improvement of the individual’s skills, they representparticular kind of knowledge and meets exact learning requirements.
In the early stage of education, workers have effective needs as theydevelop specialized skills, a solid academic structure for suggestions andmediation techniques. They also have emotional needs: to believe in their role and to be confident in their talent to do the job andto feel sufficient to act in this new venture. For the middle period of education, Erskine suggeststhat workers have to step up in their personal approach, to learn how to setdirection and systematise a goal plans. On an individual point, their aim is tounderstand themselves and to prevent any emotions and to solve any personalproblems that could create barriers to their connections with clients. According to Erskine, in this second phase theindividual development of learners is supreme importance.During the final stage of training, workers need tostudy different approaches and implement of the theoretical frames, to recognisedifferent interference and to learn how to use some of them and how to increaseflexibility. Trainees should also practice self-management and learn todistinguish between behavioural observations and observation theory.
For this model, it is essential to adapt the connectionwith the supervisee’s needs based on their present developmental stage. Supervisors using the Supervisory Development Approach should be able tocorrectly recognize the present period of the development of supervisee andgive feedback and to maintain proper for this stage assistance.However of the model used the supervision should use a number of generalbasic principles. Supervisors are in charge of the professional development of the supervised. These duties include matterslike informed consent, privacy, and double relations. Dealing with ethical and legal issues is essential for supervision. Thebalance between supervisory relations and therapeutic relationships is crucial.
Imbalance can lead to dual relationships. Supervisory relationships can become intimaterelationships between the supervisor and supervisee, in this situation the supervisionwill be no effective and supervision should stop. Professional supervision is atype of development.
The supervision may contain and to be used inconnection with other forms of professional development such as review,mentoring, counseling and training as well as for improvement and compliment.Professionalsupervision aims to: accelerate the professional development andstrengthening the competence and knowledge of the care worker; to progress the standards and ensuringthe best and safest practice. The aim alsois to accelerate the resolution of disputes andimprove the quality of work of individuals and the team . Profit of Professional Supervision For the Supervisee: increases trust,competence and efficiency; it focuses on the needs of people’s professional development; creates part ofcontinuing training and development; it make possible the incorporation oftheory and practice; expands the access to new skills; increases usage of good and best practices; enhancement self-satisfaction; reduce stress at work; raises the knowledge of their position; helps workers to use the best of their own knowledge’sand skills ; it can be a essential formof supportFor the clients: develop high service quality; increase customer wellbeing; enlarge the ethical,professional and practical standards; reduces the risk of bad practices For the supervisor : increase the level of professional development of theworkers and the team; improves the quality of work provide by members; increases confidence in the profession; reduces the possibility ofcomplaints from the service users; increases the safety and the use of bestpractices ; improved customer satisfaction; supports the implementation of organizationalstandards and goals.
2. Principles of supervision can be used toinform performance management The efficiency of Performance Management Cycleplays an important role in the application of motivation in the workplace. The fivestages in the cycle are: Plan, Manage, Review, Reward and Renew. Stage 1 -Planning: The first stage of theperformance management cycle is to plan, this include connecting with anemployee and assessing ability and responsibilities for a certain period oftime. In this stage of the planning process have to consider the workerspresent position and performance; this will set the first plan of developmentand realistic goalsStage 2 -Manage:enforcement of the plan and management of the implementation are the secondstage of the cycle. This can provide employee with support at any time andensure that good practice and tools are in place to increase performanceexpectations.Stage 3 –Review: By ensuring compliance set in the first-phase efficiency framework,this may be mainly helpful if there is any obstruction to implementation thatmight have a negative consequence .Talking to the care in the middle of thecycle is an excellent chance to change the goals depending on other factors.
Stage 4 –Reward: If allgoals are met, at this stage of the cycle is the time to evaluate and rewardemployees. The reasons and types of compensation will be discussed in a firstphase when the goals are set.Stage 5 –Renew: The final stage of the performance management cycle is renewing. Thismay include analysing past goals and searching for ways how to improve theperformance and how to make better plans. Remuneration methods can range fromoptions for annual bonuses or shares. The ultimate goal of management is to getbetter quality of finished tasks so the carers can fulfil therequirements that service users have.
Patient centred care means that the staffwill need ongoing training and guidance in completing the individuals care andthe supervisions is main partof this care improvement. The helpfulresponse to the problemsis essential for successful supervision, mostly when is establish on actual monitoring and comments are from service users. This recommendationcan motivate the staff to carry on with self developing. As well will recognise complicates in advance, like overwork or short of staff, lowknowledges and low motivation and badpractices.The supervision can be informative for everyday problems and thewellbeing of services users andstaff.
It is have potentialto find new developing ideas. 3.How to support individuals through professional supervisionSuccessfulsupervision of social care provides resources for yearly appraisal. The Handbook(People Performance Management Toolkit Skills for Care) is a freetoolkit for NHS employers and it is to help with the supervision and managingpeople’s work.
The set of tools aims to give managers and supervisors assurancehow to tackle difficulties in the management and how to deal with inefficientperformance of variety of tasks, and fair disciplinary and firing processes. Effectivesupervision tools of social care include guidance and templates for: Supervisionpolicy; Supervision agreement; Model of supervision program; Example of a supervisionrecord. Successfulprofessional supervision is a good solution for organization managing thathelps to achieve results and can provide : better stimulus to the workers; considerate how linkswork`s in common goals; well-organized time management; capability to plan the teamwork; competent work coordination; improved communication; limiting conflictsand misunderstandings; Training on work; Reducing stress at work.Effectivesupervision and team management include: Providing sufficient time forteamwork, providing time for team meetings, successful team leadership.
Individual and group supervision are an significantpart of the manager’s and supervisor’s work. Managing practice uses supervison to identify the best resources and use them for the entire team.This means that thesupervisor needs to know what the staff action is and how they do their work.He/she will be capable to provide reliable and reasonable advice to the team.
Supervision is often considered to be “one to one”, but many of the valuesand objectives of individual supervision can apply to team supervision. When supervisea team is very useful to know all the team development techniques and haveright skills. Theaggregation between the two is probably one of the most important goals: groupsupervision is expected to focus more on the well-being of people and workers,assessing the individual skills, solutions and approaches used to work in thegroup.Whensupporting and guiding the performance of the team, we can use all threeapproaches: Individual supervision, Group supervision and Team development, anda mixture of all three will most likely to be more successful.The supervisormust mediate where there is a risk to customers and make sure that principles, procedureand professional values are respected.Theresponsibility of supervising is to train and guide workers – how to makeimprovements, how to use new training methods, how to retain their commitment,how to maintain a high level of work, and to advise in the event of an urgentsituation.
Supervision also, have to allow advisers to develope new professional andpersonal knowledge through their own experience. 4.How professional supervision supports performance The main function of supervision is to considerworkers’ awareness and accomplishment, alongside the assignments,standards and polices of the organisation in order to progress the presentationof the workers.
This incorporates further training, guidance and consultation whenneeded to help carers to identify and complete their job and profession goalsand connect with the team in their development. Supervision is an encouragingand competent procedure that has the potential to bring together an employeeand a qualified supervisor together to discus good practice. And it is a methodfor worker to reconsider and estimate their efforts from conversation,reporting and surveillance by another worker. Supervisions goal is to discover problemsand to deal with them, to deliver best interests care, and improve the outcomefrom occupational and clinical issues.
Supervision is a method by which aworker is assigned to work with a colleague to achieve positive outcomes. These tasks arecompetent, responsible for implementation, professional development andpersonal support. The purpose of supervision is to get better work practice, toprogress the offered service, to improve communication, to develop thepotential of each staff member, to improve the competence of each individualemployee and throughout the business.Withprofessional supervision, we can focus on managing obstacles.
Focus on ourresponsibility for the professional development of each staff member. Emphasizethe importance of the contribution of each staff member and facilitate therecognition of skills and competence differences. This way we can increasemorality and trust, to encourage the desire for growth and development, to support good ideasand practices.By reducingnegative practices, the results and consequences of these negatives will beredirected towards the development of a higher self-esteem, autonomy andself-help of staff to achieve their personal professional duties.
As well asencouraging lifelong learning to raise awareness in evidence-based practice ishow we promote a good work environment where employees feel supported in theirroles to monitor and support progress on pre-agreed policies and procedures.