George Orwell, the author of animal farm, was a man who believed in Socialism. He saw the working class as being mistreated by the capitalist government. He wanted a socialist economy with equality and elimination of selfish individual interest. In his book, the Animal Farm, he showed the evils of a Communist market system.
In Russia there had existed a system where a minority of rich and aristocrats owned most of the property under a dictatorial king. The poor rebelled and overthrew the capitalists in order to have a communist society that would follow the ideas of Socialism. All land and property was taken from private individuals and companies and put under the supervision of the government. Unfortunately there arose Stalin, a leader who was a dictator, pretending to practise socialism yet he was a cruel dictator.
Orwell loved socialism but did not like the Communist perception of Socialism and the way they applied the socialist model. He wrote the novel to warn the people of the dangers of Communism. At the time the novel was written Communism was spreading to Europe and the United States. In the novel animal farm, Orwell tells the story of Communism in the form of an animal fable.
There are animals which represent the poor people while the pigs and dogs represent the administrators of the leader. The pigs and dogs are given power to rule the animals by Jones who is the leader.
However these administrators are greedy for power. Through bloodshed and spread of propaganda they destroy all who rise up to complain or resist them. In Russia there were power struggles between Stalin and Trotsky. These were the chief allies of Lenin who was the leader of Russia at that time.
Stalin was shrewd, once Lenin died in 1924 he ganged up with his supporters and Trotsky had fled from Russia. He held public executions of the people who supported his competitors. All the land was owned by the Jones who controlled the economy. The animals were given anthems and rules such as all animals are equal but there are animals which are more equal than others.
The book shows the way it is human nature for people to create classes in the society which leads to oppression of the poor. The pigs and the dogs are corrupted by power. The working class are naive, uneducated and gullible and do not question the intentions of the government. In the book Orwell shows the way totalitarian governments use terror and violence to control the people. Jones overworks the animals and even takes their food.
He beats them up and slaughters them. The pigs and dogs like their master do not hesitate to use this cruel tool of control. Jones exploits the animals for the physical labour. He also exploits the pigs and dogs though they are not aware. He uses them to scare the animals to do his bidding. Orwell through the book predicted that communism would not last long and would fail economically to achieve social equality.
At the end of animal farm the pigs have become the new oppressors. There is no liberation for the animals. Stalin became the new dictator in Russia just like the dictatorial king the poor had rebelled against. The predictions are true since in the communist nations the economy has not done well at all. In the end Europe and America fought with the Communist nations showing that a government-controlled economy was not the way.
A capitalist economy was democratic and the best model to emulate for any country. His warnings on Communism were true however adopting Socialism is not the way either. Capitalism is a good system that encourages competition and there is growth in the economy. Goods and services are produced and given efficiently. A capitalist country should only be careful to ensure there is no exploitation of the poor.