The literature table shows the key elements and what the other authors have written about. According to (Saunders et al 2016) before starting a research, it is important to know what other authors in researched area have already discovered. The author will elaborate and discuss the themes and the key elements in more detail, in the literature review and will utilise the conceptual frame, which will assist the researcher in the gathering of data.
This chapter outlines the details of a review undertaken of the literature relevant
to the subject within the research question and objectives, with the subject being the
performance management systems. Initially, I will introduce the definition of performance management and I will critically analyse the key element which related to the performance management of the company. Furthermore, the researcher will include the employee behaviour which is related with the key factors such as: corporation, participation, punctuality, trust and leadership. Likewise, the author will mention the organisation capabilities which is related with the key elements such as: implementing review, decision making and external strategy. All of these factors will be mentioned below in more detail. This will state the authors who will consider the factor significance. Moving on to the individual factors that review and in support of the development of the conceptual framework.
Before critically evaluate the performance management of the organization is important to understand what the performance management is. It can be defined as the continuous process of improving individuals, teams and organization performance. The aim of this system is to give direction to the employees through guidance and continuous training and development. Running and operating an organization can be an extremely difficult task, it is however, vital that the employee’s performance is managed throughout their career within the business (Bussim 2012). Due to the nature of the business, which is interpreting and translating, the implementation of performance management is focused on communication, motivation and training and development. These are key factors to the business as firstly, communication ensures the retention of customers and clients and can improve the continuous business development and growth of the organization. Secondly, training and development, which is also vital for the business as the main aim and objectives of the company is to provide training to the employees. This will allow them to progress and to achieve their career objectives. Finally, motivation is necessary in any organization, this element allows the employee to be inspired to conduct the work it also allows them willingness to do so. However, within DA Languages the author has not seen any evidence that the performances management system is being used effectively, as communication can sometimes be limited. For example, the freelance employees don’t communicate with the management team when the job or the task is completed. In some instances when negative feedback or bad service is provided the management team will contact the interpreter and feedback to them. This however, can be extremely discouraging and fails to motivate the employee. Training and development is also not encouraged or exercised to the Freelance Interpreters, this is likely to be down to the lack of funding and lack of skillset within the organization, as they are not equipped to provide training and ongoing development.
The typical characteristics displayed are the following: focused and maintaining focus, cooperation and participation, punctuality and trust, satisfaction, argumentative and leadership. Corporation and participation both elements are extremely important to the management performance system of the business. Employee participation is considered to have positive effects on organization efficiency, participation through workplace meetings problem solving groups would empower employee by allowing them to influence organizational issues through the corporation of the management system of the company (Boxall and Purcell 2010). Both elements will be utilized in the conceptual framework. Punctuality and trust on the other hand are also very important to the organization, as based on the nature of the business it is vital that the employee demonstrate punctuality and trust as they are not heavily monitored, and need to be able to carry out the duties with minimal supervision. According to (Pitesa et al, 2017) various organization life depends on relying on other without having control or being monitored by their seniors. Satisfaction is also a significant motivator for any employee within the organization, as when we are satisfied with our role, we are more productive and tend to work better. Employees’ who are satisfied tend to be more productive at work, and produce more innovative ideas. Instead, employees who are less satisfied or disappointed with the conditions of employment or office environment tend to be stagnated in the works and will be easily bored and tired. Leadership is imperative in the management performance system as this will guide the internal employees and will be able to resolve any problem that may arise, however, due to many employees having different ideas and backgrounds to share with their leader the tasks sometimes take longer to be accomplished (Hamilton 2013). Due to the importance of this element this will be included in the conceptual framework.
Organization capabilities, conceptualized as firm-specific patterns of collective knowledge accumulation that enables firms to get things done (Pandza 2010). Organization capabilities have a pivotal role in the strategy that help the business to be sustained and to prevent any challenges which may arise in the future. All the elements that are included in the organization capabilities are important: starting with the implementing reviews, which helps the company to evaluate the objectives and the aims that the firm want to achieve. Due to the significance of competitors and decision making are playing a vital role in the firm. The competition is extremely high not only is it the fact that there are multiple translation agencies in the North West but there are a lot of professional freelance translators that are fighting for work and trying their very best to undercut each other in prices (Kranekrucekt 2014). Moving on to the next factor, which is decision making, within every organization making decision tends to be a daily routine. Business success lies within the foundations of intelligent and forward-thinking decision making. Without decision making the business would have no direction and is unlikely to succeed. External strategy is again extremely important this ensures, that the business is always considering change and new directions and are always in-line with competitors or new and up and coming businesses. External strategy can also measure the success and growth of the business, by looking and considering past decisions that the organization has made. If this element was not implemented correctly it is evident that the business would not succeed in this already competitive market.
Due, to the significance of this element this will be mentioned in the conceptual framework.
According to (Sekaran 2003) research strategies is a general approach and the aim and goal of a research study. There are a number of different research strategy that the author can utilise to collect data for the research. These include: case studies, experiments, surveys, archival research and ethnography etc (Saunders et al, 2012). The author has decided to use a case study as his research strategy, this research adopts the ‘case study’ approach given its focus on a single interpreting organisation. Case study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods of research, which could be utilised within a realist approach. Case studies are relevant where the researcher wants to understand a specific situation (Johnson 2002).
There is a wide range of methodologies and methods for collecting and analysing research data. It is important that the author must choose those that meet the philosophical assumption of the paradigm. The author has to undertaken a realist approach for the research philosophy. The researcher can utilise both a quantitative approach, thus the author will be able to measure data with numbers and also a qualitative approach which enable the researcher to understand the feelings and opinions of the employee that works for DA languages. As a result, the author made the informed decision to adopt three methods, which used both approaches to collate the research data needed.
The methods that the researcher decided to choose are secondary data (SD), a self-completion questionnaire (SCQ) and also semi-structured interviews (SSI).
The author adopted the above methods because the first methods secondary data served perfectly and highlighted the key themes of the research. The second method self-completion questionnaire method is necessary because it will help the researcher to develop the key themes in an explorative way. Semi-Structured Interviews are vital as they will give to the author more information to develop the key themes in a more detailed manner. Each method has advantages and disadvantages within the author’s research, therefore triangulation need to take place in the research methods to achieve balance and to strengthen the depth and reliability of the research.
Secondary data are internal or external data that have been collected and published by other researchers, groups and organizations (Wilson, 2014). SD includes both quantitative (numeric) and qualitative (non-numeric) approaches and are used in both descriptive and explanatory research (Saunders et al,2012). Secondary data includes results of surveys that other people have done, newspaper, document based for instance and reports of research which can be found in academic journals (Cameron,2009). (Sekaran 2003) “proposes secondary data are ‘indispensable for most organizational research” (p.222), as they provide a rapid way of sourcing information. This however, should not be used alone, as secondary data are often originated from a different context, which is resulting in questionable generalizability. The researcher has decided, mainly to use internal SD as this form of data is already existing within an organization.
SD have numerous advantages and disadvantages to the author’s research. The main advantages are that SD is often available on the internet (Vartanian, 2010).
The fact that SD data can be accessed on the internet and the data can be used free of charge, furthermore, as the author is employed by the organization the author has access to logs books. SD is less expensive, and minimal time is required to gather all the relevant information when undertaking research on an organization, which can be proven as an advantage (Whiteside et al, 2012).
Although SD clearly have a number of benefits there are also many disadvantages. When using this methods that needs to be apparent. Data that has been published many years ago my not be appropriate when analyzing current problems. This will not be related to the objectives and research question. Moreover, the researcher must evaluate the data carefully, even though the data are quick and easy to use some of the data may be misleading (Saunders et al,2012). Alternatively, secondary data that the research rely on sometimes leave things out as people whose information are using don’t think is important (Saunders, et al,2016). The author decided to use 6 resources of secondary data, which was provided to him by the company. The secondary data that was provided was from the DA language all related to the objectives.
Questionnaire are among one of the most widely used and valuable means of data collection (Lancatser,2005.). SCQ is important because each person is asked to respond to the same set of question in a predetermined order (Sunders et al 2012). In this research, the author decided to adopt self-completion questionnaire as a second research method, because it will help the researcher to have a deeper and wider understanding of the key issues in a way that the first research method is not quite able to achieve (Sunders et al 2012). The SCQ is designed in such a way that it opens all the key issues identified in the conceptual frame for in-depth analysis. According to (Saunders et al.2012) these types of questions are useful if the author is unsure what the response would be. There is no denying that questionnaires are a useful tool, that allows you to gather information in a structured manner. They are however, difficult to constructs as it is important that the structure and questioning are relevant. The researcher also has the difficult job of ensuring that the questions are clear, concise and not to lengthy as providing too much information and questions to the reader is likely to lose their interest and response rate to the research is likely to be low quality or little responses. The author will draft the SCQ with pilot test on a number of employee to gather feedback on the questionnaire. It is important to use a number of employees for the pilot because every employee in the company have different critiques of the questionnaires, and help the author to improve the questionnaires. The pilot is important to be used in a questionnaire because enable the researcher to assess the validity and reliability of the data that is collected (Saunders et al,2012). Using the SCQ there are some advantages and disadvantages that need to consider. The researcher will ensure that anonymity is given to the employee that is employed by DA language. The questionnaire does not disclose the identity or job title of the participant involved in the questionnaire. This give the employee’s extra security, when answering intrusive question about their role within the company. Otherwise, the participants maybe reluctant to provide the information required.
Despite the advantages of SCQ there are advantages that the author should be aware of, the main problem of SCQ’s are of the possible response rates, according to Thomas (2003) states that the average response rate could be 40-50 percent.
Low levels of response rates can almost certainly lead to a biased sample size (Thomas, 2003), which is not beneficial for the researcher.
DA languages is an organization with over 1000 freelance employees and around 80 in-house employees, as it is difficult for the researcher to get in touch with the freelance employees (the nature of the role), the questionnaire is likely to be completed by the in-house employees only. The in-house employees however, will provide an all rounded experience of the organization as they have one-on-one direct contact with the Freelance Interpreters and the positives and negatives that the Interpreters face. The author decided to use a sample size of 25-30 employees, from various backgrounds and origins to get a wider view of opinions and experiences. This will give to the author better scope for the research.
Following the review of literature, the most important vital elements which linked to the performance management system and to the organization will be developed in the diagram below