THE MEDIA INDUSTRYIn this report, I will be covering many different subjects todo with the media industry. This will help anybody interested in careers for amedia sector. This report will contain information about different types of mediaownerships, as well as ethical issues involved in these. This is to fully giveyou knowledge of what is contained within the media industry. PRIVATE OWNERSHIPA privately-owned company is funded primarily through advertisement.For example, ITV is a private ownership and unlike BBC which is public servicecompany, they have adverts in between their broadcasts allowing them to makerevenue to continue funding more shows.
Another private owned company isYouTube, which is a video broadcasting website which allows content creators toupload and share their own videos to generate views, and eventually when havingenough of a following, money. The way that the content creators and YouTubemake their money is through ad-revenue, which they will gain when they haveearned a certain amount of ‘subscribers’ and views. The way this is done isthrough a system called ‘Monetisation’. When a video on YouTube is ‘Monetised’,Adverts will be shown throughout the video allowing both the creator andYouTube to make money, so much money in fact that a lot of ‘YouTubers’ havebeen able to use it as a full-time job. Having a privately-owned company canhave a lot of advantages, as some companies who want their products advertisedare willing to pay a lot of money to get it done. A disadvantage of privateownership is that what is produced might not be exactly what the audience want,whereas for companies such as the BBC, they research what the audience wantbefore producing a show, possible taking more of the audience’s interest.
Commercial broadcasting, also known as private broadcasting once again usesadvertisement to fund their broadcasts. These can often be the case withPodcasts as it allows the public to create their own broadcasts and earnrevenue from doing so. However, this would only be the case for large podcastswhich would gain the interest of companies who would want to invest, smallerpodcasts would be independently owned meaning the fund themselves without thehelp of advertising or the government.
PUBLIC SERVICE MEDIAA public service company is purely funded through the government,which everyone who uses a TV pays for with a ‘TV License’. A public servicecompany must listen to what the audience want. If the public complain, thenthey will have to make changes to give the consumers what they want, and if ashow doesn’t get many views, then it will be cancelled. One of the biggestexamples of a public ownership is the BBC. The BBC is funded by the governmentpurely to inform, educate and to entertain, giving the audience exactly whatthey want rather than what they want to create.
This is an advantage for theaudience as the BBC do a lot of research into what the audience wants for allages, genders, sexualities and religions. A disadvantage of this is that a lotof people don’t want to have to pay for a TV license, and would much ratherwatch purely on demand, or sign up to other services such as Sky which doesn’tonly fund one channel. As well as TV, the BBC are also very well known fortheir radio stations which is very interactive with the audience and like onthe TV, they are always making sure that they are playing what the audiencewant to hear. MULTINATIONALSAmultinational company is a business which is distributed in multiple countriesaround the world. And example of multinational TV company is Comcast, which isthe largest broadcasting and cable TV company in the world by revenue, andbroadcasts to millions of homes all around the globe.
Most film companies arealso multinational, this is to allow the creators of the film to gain the verymost out of the movie and as well as that there is no reason for it not to beshared. This is especially the case as Hollywood, where most of the biggestfilms are created is only in one country. A reason for a movie not to be sharedamong a country is when the countries believe the movie will cause offence oris too explicit for their population.
For example, if a movie was to contain aNazi symbol along with relative content, the movie would most likely be bannedfrom being broadcasted in Germany. All this information is the same forAnimations and Video games. They too are shared among all countries, as thereis no reason not to be unless the country doesn’t want it being distributedthere. An example of a video game being banned in another country is the game’Wolfenstein’ a franchise about the protagonist who you play fighting the Nazipowers and is set in a world in which the Nazis won the first world war. Thiswas banned in Germany for Nazi references.
CONGLOMERATEA media conglomerate is a largecompany who own several other smaller companies who distribute certain forms ofmedia to consumers. Viacom is an example of a conglomerate company, they ownmultiple different television channels such as MTV, Nickelodeon, GlobalEntertainment Group, CMT, Comedy Central, BET Networks, Logo TV and many more. DIVERCIFICATIONDiversification in the media iswhen a company decides to branch out into different media sectors, for examplea company does television broadcasting branching out in to radio broadcastingor internet streaming, this is diversification as the company is diversifyingwhat they do, creating a more diverse company.
An example of a company whichhas diversified is most newspaper companies such as the Guardian Media Groupwhich originally developed newspapers but has since started producing onlinenew content and created radio stations on which they can share some of thestories and events covered in their newspaper but in a much faster time frame.Film companies can also be multinational, however on a slightly smaller scale,for example they can create lots of completely different types of movies, andthe same goes for animation businesses. VERTICAL INTEGRATIONVertical integration is when amedia company (conglomerates) owns several companies at different stages ofproduction.
Warner Bros is owned by Time Warner, which is a huge multinationalmedia conglomerate. Harry Potter, a huge movie franchise, is a good example ofhow Warner Bros has used vertical integration to increase the potentialearnings from productions. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part Two wascreated by Warner Bros pictures, in association with Heyday Films.
It was thendistributed by Warner Bros Distribution. HORIZONTAL INTEGRATIONHorizontal integration describesthe merging of two or more companies at the same point in the productionprocess in the same or different business. If the products offered by thecompanies are the same or similar, it is a merger of competitors. ETHICALISSUESIn themedia industry, for all sectors, there is always forms of ethical issues thatmust be worked around. These include offensive content, racism, sexism etc.Ethical issues aren’t bad in a legal way, it is not illegal to distribute apiece of work whether it be a film or game or a book that contains potentiallyoffensive content. However, it can affect the creator of this product or thepopularity of the work. One example is with YouTube, when it had first becomepopular years ago, any ethical issues were expectable, but now, contentcreators are being affected as if their content does contain stuff that is notappropriate to some audiences, then it will be what is called ‘demonetised’.
When a video is demonetised, the creator cannot gain any money from the video,and no advertisements will be contained within it. Television is similar. If a program containsgraphic or offensive content that may cause offence, other companies may notwant their products being advertised or not want to sponsor the program.Another issue often involved in TV shows such as documentaries or news reportsare privacy.
Often, a show will show something or tell something that may beprivate or personal information about someone, something they may not havewanted the world to know. If this does happen, the subject of the leakedinformation can sue as they did not give permission for it to be broadcastedand this can often bring down a shows reputation. For radio, copyright is often a large ethicalissue. This is because some artists may not want their music broadcastedIt isbelieved that kids watching violent action movies can be brainwashed by theminto committing crime themselves and hurting or bullying others. This can oftenbe a big issue as it is sometimes the parents first thought when their childacts in a violent way a large percentage of children watch extremely violentfilms.
These movies tend to leave psychological scars on a child. Child-basedmovies and cartoons do influence the thinking and behaviours of millions of21st century children. For video games, the impact it is thought tohave on children is also a very large problem, parents and other adults believethat the mass amount of violence in video games is affecting children andcausing more bullying and other forms of violence. Another ethical issue invideo games is when a game has too much explicit or offensive content, this cancause people to dislike the game or possibly have a biased opinion on any othergames by that company.