The helpful for the society in future. It

The last principal is justice which is
deals with the concept of fairness that is the distribution of burdens, risks,
chances and benefits. Several elements need to be considered by the researcher
when doing their research. All the participants need to be treated with equal
respect and concern where the benefits of the research will be shared, where
feasible, with all of those affected by its results. Other than that, the
participants also will not be excluded from research for reasons unrelated to
the research. Researchers will be cognizant of, and works to mitigate,
imbalances in power between themselves and participants, among individual participants,
or between participants and the groups to which they belong.

The purpose of the research is to
discover new information that would be helpful for the society in future. It
should never cause harm to anyone or find out information at the expense of
other people. There is dilemma arises from the researcher in this case because
to avoid the risks, the researcher needs to know what is harmful. The evidence
obtained from the study will show whether it is beneficence or not. In order to
identify what can benefit the patients, it may be necessary to exposed them to
risks although the researchers are obligated to do their best to minimize those
possible risks and to maximize the benefits for participants.

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Beneficence is the act that is done for
the benefit of others or a duty to ensure the welfare of the persons concerned.
This principal states that the research should do no harm and maximize benefits
for participants and minimize risks for participants.

The second requirements in the principle
of autonomy is people with diminished autonomy should be protected. This is to
ensure that the persons concerned are not involved in research which could be
harmful for them with regard to a research project. This is because some people
in society may not have the capacity to make fully informed decisions.

The principle of respect for person or
autonomy consists of two requirements which is first, the individuals should be
treated as autonomous which means that the individual capable of making their
own decision about important personal matters. The individual should only be
involved in research if they have voluntarily give their consent and been fully
informed about the nature, purpose and consequences of the research. Therefore
the individuals’ right need to be respected and they can make their own
decision whether to participate in the research.

There are three fundamental principles
of research ethics that can be used by the researchers in their work which are
respect for persons or autonomy, beneficence and justice.

Discuss the major ethical principles that guide researchers in their works.








 Therefore, there might some misunderstanding
that might occur. Besides that, other issue is the participants may have a
false expectation regarding the research. The participants might get involved
in research projects that they did not approve of due to misunderstandings or
misinterpretation concerning the experimental procedures (Escobedo et al.,
2007). The participant’s perception regarding the research might affect the
process of obtaining the informed consent because they afraid of the
consequences of the research on them. In this case, disclosing information to
them might scare them away.

The process might create or result
several ethical issues if it is not being done properly. Misunderstandings
between the researchers and the participants will result due to communication
barriers such as language differences and religous dogma. The individual who
signed the informed consent is assumed to have fully understand the information
that is stated in the consent form but it is difficult to evaluate the level of
understanding in the individual’s point of view.

The informed consent process is where
the participant is informed regarding all aspects of the trial, which are
important for the participant to make a decision and after studying all aspects
of the trial, the participant voluntarily confirms his or her willingness to
participate in a particular clinical trial and significance of the research for
advancement of medical knowledge and social welfare (Nijhawan et al., 2013)

Informed consent is a fundamental
ethical requirements for research with human subjects. It is when a subject
voluntarily agrees to participate in a research study in which he or she has
full understanding of the study before the study begins (Nieswiadomy, 2014).


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