Tourism refers to the scenario whereby individuals known as tourists travel and stay in places different from their usual environment for at least a day or at most o year for the purposes of recreation business New York is one of the states in the United States with a total of sixty two cities.
Each of these cities plays a significant role in the tourism industry in the New York State. New York was the origin of the tourism industry in the United States at around 1820, and it arrived in the United States at a surprising rapidity. Earlier on, most of the Americans spent their leisure time visiting tourist attraction sites in Europe (Gassan 2).
Tourism emerged in the United States from the Hudson River valley, north of New York City in the 1820’s. It was triggered by the confluence of historical accidents as well as the proximity of the valley to the New York City which was then one of the fastest growing cities financially and population wise in the United States. The valley also had remarkable scenery and a favorable geographic position since it connected the country’s most sought after destinations as a water way (Gassan 2).
1. The Role and Significance of Major Cities
Major cities inside and outside New York state plays a major role in the tourism industry in this region. Most of them are densely populated such that they are a source of the many tourists that visit the many tourist attraction sites in New York. Major cities in New York have significant tourist attraction sites that play a major role in the number of tourists that visit New York each year.
They also have good infrastructure mainly in the transport and communication system that makes it easier for tourist to operate from New York since they are able to move from one tourist site to the other at ease. Furthermore, these major cities have been developed with good housing and other facilities such as hotels that accommodate tourists in their stay during their vacations as they move around the state visiting tourist attraction sites.
Apart from being the largest city in New York State, New York city is the largest city in North America and it harbors ever 15 million people in its metropolitan area.
The city’s international profile rose drastically since the September 11, 2009 terrorist attack of the world trade center which left thousands of people dead and it since then entered the list of the world’s top ten most visited destinations (Boniface & Cooper 420). This scenario further promoted the tourism industry in New York since it has grown at a great percentage since 2001 as compared to the industry before then.
2. Economic and social implications of tourism
Tourism has been of major importance in both ht e economy and social life of New York since its presence has developed the nation’s economy n a positive sense (Hoffman 10). It has been generating over $25 billion annually and creating around 282 000 employment opportunities in the region.
Together with other industries, the tourism industry has contributed a lot in improving the face of the state making it the nation’s primary region in many aspects. For instance, it is the major centre for fashion and arts in USA and the leading financial centre and conference venue with more hotel beds than any other city in USA (Boniface & Cooper 420).
The revenue generated by the tourism industry has been used to improve other sectors of the economy. It has helped reduce the rate of poverty in the region through generation of employment opportunities and contributing to the revenue of the country that is further geared towards needy families. It has helped in the construction of good transportation system and other tourism facilities thus improving the general infrastructure of the region.
The expenditure spent on improving the tourism industry and the inflows of income are a major tool for regional development as well as their significant contribution towards the national income. The main factors that have led to the rapid growth of the tourism industry in New York are income and social changes in the developed nations, reduced air fares especially on non scheduled flights and improved management in the industry.
This has in turn provided income to the employees and suppliers working in the hotels, motels and government rest houses. There are also service charges obtained from all tourists and payments made for the supply of special tourist items in the restaurants. Furthermore, tourists provide income to the residents through purchase of items and provision of such services as tipping (Hoffman 10).
3. Cultural Factors
The cultural attraction sites in New York are world class, with the major one’s being metropolitan Opera House and Carnegie Hall. The cultural department in tourism is closely related to sports which is also a major tourist attraction in New York. Some of the major sports venues are Madison Square Garden, Shea Stadium and Flushing Meadows. Central park contains over 800 acres of cultural centers and recreational sites (Hudman & Jackson 70).
4. Climate and Topography
The combinations of the many landforms that make up New York have created adequate attractive topography of the region that has kept visitors coming to witness the wonders of nature. The areas mentioned below under the heading ‘major tourist attraction sites’ are just but a few landscapes that make up the topography of New York. There physical landscapes are mainly as a result of climate of this region, meaning that the region has a favourable climate that has been promoting the tourism industry.
The climate and the weather patterns in New York have been of great advantage in the tourism industry. It is composed of humid continental climate which is greatly influenced by the presence of large water bodies. Its average annual temperature is around 40o c which ranges from -52oc to 1070 through the year. Winters are long and cold but are usually moderated by the great lakes in the region. The summer temperatures go as high as 1000 but are also modified by the great water body masses (Anon 11).
Apart from foreign tourism, there is a lot of local tourism taking place in New York City. This has been made possible by the high population in the region. For instance, Manhattan, a region in the New York State is one of the most densely populated regions in the Western World. It is further among the most cosmopolitan regions in the Western world alongside Brooklyn and Queens with diversified ethnic neighbourhoods and various probably unrivalled restaurants (Boniface & Cooper 420).
6. Major tourists attractions
New York harbours various tourist attraction sites that are regularly visited making the industry one of the best in the country. It was the origin of tourism industry in the USA. Tourism emerged in the United States from the Hudson River valley, north of New York City in the 1820’s.
It was triggered by the confluence of historical accidents as well as the proximity of the valley to the New York City which was then one of the fastest growing cities financially and population wise in the United States. The valley also had remarkable scenery and a favorable geographic position since it connected the country’s most sought after destinations as a water way (Gassan 2).
The historic waterfront of Manhattan Island is another major tourist attraction regenerating most tourists at Intrepid Sea-Air-Space museum and South Street Sea Port. Many other tourist attraction sites are mainly located to the east and south of Central park some of which include the ‘famous skyscrapers skyline of midtown at the empire State building, museum mile, the Broadway theatre district, and Fifth Avenue best set for shopping’. Central Park was designed in the 1860’s and it contains over 800 acres of recreational sites and cultural Centre (Hudmann & Downtown 70).
Downtown Manhattan which is the oldest part of New York has also been a major tourist attraction site due to some of its features like the ‘stock exchange, Chinatown, the artistic quarter of the Green which Village among others. Furthermore, the twin tower became a major tourist attraction site since the September 11 terrorism attack that left thousands of people fighting for their lives. The twin tower attraction site has since been renamed Ground Zero (Boniface & Cooper 420).
There has been a common slogan ‘I-Love-New-York’ which has been the theme in the tourism industry and it has contributed greatly in the rise of visitors in New York. However, New York has been a major destination for most visitors and an important city in the world.
The global importance which had remained unchanged by September 11, 2002 has been brought about its combination of financial manufacturing tad ultra roles. Other attraction sites in New York include Lincoln centre best for performing arts, Rockefeller Center best for its Radio city music hall, UN headquarters, Wall street’s, the statue of liberty national monument, Niagara falls, etc (Hudmann & Jackson 70).
7. Markets and competitive advantages and disadvantage
New York has been a major destination for most visitors in the world for a long time due to its combination of financial, marketing and cultural roles. It has maintained outstanding and quality oriented services in its tourism industry over its rivals thus enjoying the benefits of competitive advantage. However, its tourism industry reached a devastating point in 2001 after the terrorist attack of twin towers since most visitors lost confidence in the internal security of the city.
During the attack, not only the residents lost their lives but also many visitors who were having leisure in the twin tower , an incident that shook the whole world since it was one of the major attacks in history. It took the New York tourism industry a lot of effort and investment in advertising and marketing to bring back the industry in its normal position since the number of tourist visiting the state had dropped significantly and drastically (Hudmann & Jackson 70).
Most of the attraction sites in and around ground Zero were destroyed during the terrorist attack and were inaccessible to visitors. The drastic decline in the number of visitors around ground Zero and in the rest of New York was accompanied by serious financial problems.
Apart from advertising, the industry lowered its prices and with the help of the federal government, they insisted both nationally and internationally that avoiding New York would encourage terrorism. By 2002, the industry had begun re-establishing again (Hudmann & Jackson 70).
8. Existing tourist infrastructure
In any country, infrastructure plays a major role in the tourism industry. In New York, this has been promoted by historic role of the city as the major port of entry to the USA with deep water harbour and its access through Hudson River to the interior of North America. This has promoted the growth of the tourism industry at quite a high percentage (Boniface & Cooper 420).
New York has world class infrastructure that is composed of the transport system, communication system, hotels and other recreation facilities that ensures that all visitors enjoys their stay in New York and are likely to come back again. The good infrastructure is a tourist attraction in itself and makes it easier to access major destination in New York. New York has more hotel beds than any other place in the world and well maintained and world class infrastructure.
9. The role of the State Department of Tourism or National Tourism Organization
The State department of tourism in New York plays an important role in the tourism industry. It is responsible for the well being of the industry in the Nation. It employs staff in the national parks, game reserves and all other tourist attractions that protect the sites of human or any other kind of destruction.
This department carry out campaigns throughout the nation creating awareness on the need to preserve all the areas that attract tourists in New York. They also do advertising and marketing of the department urging both the locals and the foreigners to visit New York. They are the people who have maintained the global importance and the excellence of the tourism industry in New York making it a major destination in the world.
The tourism industry is highly dynamic and there is a need to ensure that if a region has to remain relevant in the tourism industry then there will be a need for sensitivity to details. It is important for the management to maintain their commitment in this industry in order to retain the confidence that the world has concerning the tourism industry in New York.
Being one of greatest generation of revenue to New York State, the tourism management of this state ought to ensure that all that is possible is accomplished to ensure that the elements which attract tourists are well advertised. Some of the ways that New York can use to attract more tourists include making us of the trade shows as forum of advertising. They should also find room for extension of the industry and find means of maintaining their competitive advantage globally.
In order to ensure that New York State even gets more tourists, it should engage in fierce media advertisements to create awareness of its tourism sectors. The State should also try to ensure that its tourism sites are blended well to display a multiracial theme. Lastly New York has a huge population and should be keen to encourage domestic tourism. I feel that domestic tourism if well ventured into will be more beneficial than international tourism as it reduces risks associated with international tourists.
The tourism industry in New York is one of the highest revenue generating industry in the region. New York has uncountable attraction sites ranging from the natural landscapes to manmade and more so, Ground Zero has really promoted the industry since the bombing of twin towers in 2001.
Even after the terrorism attack of the city in 2001 and its devastating effects thereafter, the management of the industry has been able to reinstate it and it has remained outstanding among other destinations in the world. It has maintained its global importance and has remained a major destination to most tourists in the world. This industry has had many economic and social benefits like job creation and contributing to the national income thus reducing the level of poverty in New York.
Anon. The Climate of New York. Google Documents, 2003. Web. 03 April, 2011.
Boniface, Brian & Cooper, Chris. Worldwide destinations: the geography of travel and tourism. Burlington, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005. Print.
Gassan, Richard. The birth of American tourism: New York, the Hudson Valley, and American… New York, University of Massachusetts Press, 2008. Print.
Hoffman, Norbert. A survey of tourism in West Malaysia and some socio-economic implications. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian, 1979. Print.
Hudman, Lloyd & Jackson, Richard. Geography of Tourism & Travel. New York: Cengage Learning, 2003. Print.