Rape is a misdemeanor offense in which an individual mandates to have sexual contact without his or her approval. Though majority rapes are never accounted for, the figure of occurrences documented in the United States tremendously increased between 1970 and 1986. It is not in fact acknowledged if the number of rapes is augmented or if additional victims are enthusiastic to report the cases. Indignity, terror of retribution or denial and the shock of a court audition are regular causes for refusal to testify against a sexual felony (Williams, 2002).
History of Rape
The record of society’s appreciation to sexual aggression has its pedigree in English assets law. The problem of sexual attack did not come into the realization of the United States’ civil society until the feminist pressure groups of the 1960s. Feminists perceived rape as an instrument for upholding patriarchy, a brutal technique of stirring up horror in women and strengthening their inferiority to men. This perspective has fashioned the approach in our culture in describing and conceptualizing sexual violence presently.
Kids who are induced to hostility between their relatives are possibly caught up in brutal love affairs when they become adults. The configuration of the family appears to have effects on the feelings and conducts of kids brought up in them. Aggressive sex delinquents are known to be prone rape compared to other grownups that experienced deprived parental upbringing, unfortunate control, corporal violence, abandonment, and separation from their parents.
The Causes of Rape
Cultural Expectations and Rape myths
Prospects conveyed by culture classically push men to believe they are greater, unrestricted and that they are supposed to be constantly on the sentry for and prepared to kick off sex in their affairs with women. Simultaneously, these sexual writings train women to believe that they are in charge of situating the confines and speed of sexual intercourse in their interaction with men.
Rape folklores naturally reject the reality of sexual attack, justify it and lessen the gravity of its consequences. Virtually all cultures accept rape and have instruments that are responsible for sexual aggression.
The Media and the School
Since the beginning days of contemporary feminist’s pressure groups, women challenged that pornography facilitated sexual violence towards females depicts them as not anything apart from sex items, an outlook that is backed by research.
Television and cinemas frequently pass the information that such brutality functions to demean women. Involvement in group activities could augment the danger of sexual violence. Peers are extra powerful in determining personality actions than environmental science, individuality, kin, faith, or traditions (Scott & Glenna, 1994).
Psychopathology and Individuality Qualities
Men involved in rape cases have been spotted with a broad range of psychiatric and character disarrays, mainly disruptive individuality confusion. However, personality gauging of rapists has established that there is no momentous variation between sexual delinquents and those confined for platonic felonies.
The extent of participation in sexually coercive actions seems to be correlated to individual quantities of capriciousness, deficiency of collective sense of right and wrong and a worth course legalizing antagonism, predominantly against women.
The largest part findings have summarized that there is much of heterogeneity amongst rapists and that sexual violence is caused by various dynamics. In fact, it has been alleged that the personality data of rapist criminals more directly counterparts the personality data of men in the broad populace as compared to any other forms of crimes (Hooks, 2000).
Masculinity and Power Drives
Research has established that drives of supremacy and rage are more famous in rapists’ justification of sexual violence than sexual wishes are. Sexually hostile men candidly confess that their sexual desires are antagonistic and brutal. The level of affiliation between a man and a woman may perhaps influence the likelihood of aggression.
A number of researches propose that men who rape on initial or subsequent dates possibly will have connection to outsider raping while men who rape near the beginning in what or else materialize to be an increasing association may just misconceive their partners’ meaning (Allison & Wrightsman, 1993)
Feminist movements refer to numerous attempts put in place to bring about change. For instance, they attempt to bring about an end to brutality against women, provide the same chances for men and women, allow women sufficient motherhood leave and bring to a halt pestering of women sexually.
Women have since time in memorial been fatalities of socio-cultural unfairness. The feminist lobby groups have managed to penetrate through inflexible socio-cultural structure in society primarily through backing female child education. The entire globe no longer practices female injustice by handing over minor roles to women. In its place, some women have raised to sky-scraping positions in politics and finance (Harris, 1990).
Islamic feminism is apprehensive about the position of women in Islam and aspires for the complete egalitarianism among Muslims, despite of sex, in civic and personal life. Even though it is ingrained in Islam, the association’s founders have made use of worldly and Western feminist discourse.
Campaigners of the lobby group try to underscore the extremely deep-seated experience of impartiality in the Quran and query the patriarchal explanation of Islamic philosophy through the Quran, hadith (maxim of Muhammad) and sharia (rule) towards the formation of a new, identical and fair society. Lots of ayaat (stanzas) of the Qur’an appear to pronounce gentleman/womanly sameness. Fundamentally, human beings are identical.
They are merely differentiated among themselves on the origin of their legal observations or execution of the essential Qur’anic standard of integrity (Rhouni, 2001). Therefore, there is no disagreement between feminism and being religious. On one occasion, we identify feminism as consciousness of limits erected in front of women since sex, dismissal of restrictions erected on women, and attempts to create and employ unbiased gender structure are all patriarchal efforts meant to derail women efforts in the society (Bergen, 1996).
Feminist movements in the Middle East employ three approaches. The approaches include first, reinterpreting ayaat of the Qur’an to rectify bogus information in frequent circulation. Secondly, it involves quoting ayaat that indisputably pronounce the egalitarianism of women and men and lastly, delink the section of ayaat conscientious to male and female variation that has been frequently construed in ways that rationalize male supremacy (Treanor, 2002).
In general, research on the roots of sexual brutality has paid attention to two forms of premises those entrenched in individuality of the delinquent, and those that spot distinctiveness of culture in which we exist. None the theories fully elucidates the occurrence of sexually brutal activities in our civilization.
Modern research in the discipline of sexual hostility points out that an incorporated theory will possibly have the superlative ability of amplifying what causes sexual cruelty in our culture. The police officer, with little research information thought indecent dressing causes sexual violence.
Allison, J. & Wrightsman, L. (1993). Rape: The Misunderstood Crime. California: Sage.
Bergen, R. (1996). Wife Rape: Understanding the Response of Survivors and Service Providers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Harris, A. (1990). Essentialism in Feminism legal theory. American Sociological Journal. 42, 35-71.
Hooks, B. (2000). Feminist theory: from margin to center. Cambridge, Massachusetts: South End Press.
Rhouni, R. (2001). Women and Gender, the Middle East and the Islamic world. Retrieved on May 27, 2011 from: http://www.brill.nl/brochures/WandG.pdf
Scott, S. & Glenna, S. (1994). Housework in Marital and Non-marital Households. American Sociological Review, 59(3), 17-31.
Treanor, N. (2002).The feminist movement. Farmington Hills, ML: Green haven Press
Williams, M. (2002). The Sexual Revolution. Farmington Hills, ML: Green haven Press