YAHUD?LER prisoners of war had been brought to

 

YAHUD?LER ROMA DA NASIL BÜYÜMEYE BA?LADI?

           
The Jewish community which is in Rome is known as the oldest Jewish
community in the Europe. Also, it is known as the oldest settlement in the
world and it dates to the 161. B.C.E. When Jonahan, Eupolemus, Jason Ben and
Eleazar came as envoys of Judah Maccabee, Other delegations had been sent by
Hamonean rulers in 150 and 139 B.C.E. By the time, Jewish prisoners of war had
been brought to Rome to be made slaves after the Romans invaded Judea in 63
B.C.E. Jewish merchants who were looking for the job opportunities went to the
Rome and in that time, Jewish delegates also went to the Rome with diplomatic tasks.
Thus, people who went to the Rome made decision to stay and live in there and
population rate of Jewish started to increase. Relationships
with the rulers in Rome were good although treatment that is applied by the
Romans in Palestine to the Jews was harsh. For example, it was known well that
Julius Caser was friends with Jews and he accepted Jews to settle anywhere in
Rome. According to the historians, Roman Jews were crying all day and night on
the Caesar’s tomb when Caesar was killed by Brutus in 44 B.C.E. Augustus acted
toward the Jews and he planned grain distribution in the way that Jewish
Sabbath cannot interfere. Two synagogues were built by the slaves who was freed
by Augustus (14 B.C.E) and Agrippa(12 B.C.E).In the classic period, Jews were
exiled from Rome for two times in 19 C.E-49 C.E. Reason of the first exile was
a  Roman woman who was attracted to
Judaism Fulvia. The second
deportation happened because of disturbances that caused by the rise of Christianity.
However, it is not certain that these measures were carried out or that period
of deportation took a long time. In Palestine, during the Jewish-Roman battles
66-73 and 132-135, Jewish prisoners of war was bringing to the Rome and they
were accepted as slaves. Majority of the oldest Jewish Roman families follow
ancestry in the city to this time. Jewish academicians who are from Israel were
coming to the Rome in 95-96. Jews were allowed as Roman citizens by Caracella.The Roman Jewish
community became firmly established since the second half of the first century
C.E. Most of the community were peddlers, craftsman and shopkeepers. However, there
were other actors who became actors, poets and doctors. Satiric poets of the time,for example Martial, indicated the
choked activities of the Jewish peddlers and beggars in their poetries.
Evidence has been found that twelve synagogues were open during this period
(although not at the same time). Unfortunately, none of those synagogues have
been protected. Since 2nd C.B.C, Jews were living in
the Rome. Laws that allowed to protect to worship Jews chose had been supported
by Caesar and Augustus. Then, Synagogues were allowed to be able to collect the
tax that paid yearly by every Jewish men for temple maintenance and classified
as colleges to get around Roman rules banning secret societies. By time, there
were some problems and one of these problems is exiled of the Jewish in 139
B.C. in 19 A.D. They had been banished from the Rome but after that, they had
been allowed to turn back and go on their lives by independently existence
under the Roman laws.

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In the history of Jews in Judaea, there were some revolts against to the
Roman laws by the Jews. The first revolt was the consequent of long series of
clashes in the small groups of Jews that had been responded with sporadic
resistance against the Romans. After the loss of AD 66 Jews, when Jews revolt
they discarded Romans from the Jerusalem and they destroyed in the pass of
Beth-Horon that is a Roman punitive force under Gallus which is the imperial
legate in Syria. Then, a revolutionist government was established and
population of the whole country had extended as country. Vespasian had been
sent to the country to finish the rebellion by the Romans and he met with
Josephus who is a historian to go to Galilee that the historian Josephus headed
the Jewish forces together. The army of Josephus faced with the army of
Vespasian and they runned. Josephus had given up and Roman forces had swept the
country after the fall of castle of Jatapata. Jerusalem had fell in AD 70 on
the 9th of the month of Av also, Jewish state collapsed and the
Temple had been burned. However, castle of Masada could not be conquered until
April 73 by the Roman general Flavius Silva. This revolt had been some wars and
revolts; First Jewish Roman War, Kitos war and BAR Kohba Revolt. The First
Jewish-Roman War had started in 66 CE and finished in 73 CE. This war is called
as the First Jewish Revolt or the Great Jewish Revolt. It continued until
destruction of the 2nd temple and of Jerusalem and fall of Galilee
in 67 C.E and to the Fiscus Judaicus in 70 C.E and finally the falling of the
Masada in 73 C.E. Then Kitos war had happened in 115 C.E to 117 C.E. and it is
known as ”Rebellion of Exile”.Bar Kohba revolt had
started in 132 B.C and finished in 136 C.E. This revolt is called as te Second
Jewish-Roman War or also it is known as the Third Jewish-Roman War.

           
In 66 C.E, The First Jewish-Roman Empire 
battle began .The reason of this war is 
high tension of religious people 
between Greek? and
by the time it became? bad because of attacks to the Roman citizens and
anti-taxation?
protests. After that, there had happened a revolts as a response for people who
executed 60000 jews   in Jerusalem and
the looted  of the Second Judaic Temple..
Garrison of the Roman military of Judaea had been occupied by the Jewish
rebels. The king Agrippa II who had stand with Romans had runned with the important
people of Rome from Jerusalem. When it 
understood that the rebellion cannot be controlled by people, Cestius
Gallus and the ambassador of Syria brought the military force of Syria,  to be able?  to
restore order and quell the insurgency , depends on ?reinforced by backup troops XII Fulminate. Although
all improvements, Jewish rebels ambush and defeated the Syrian Legion at the
Battle of Beth Horon with 6,000 Roman people and Legion Aquila could not be
found by anyone. They had lost and this lost had been cause of shock for Roma
leaders. Duty of quell the continuance of the riot in Judaea had been given to
the general Vespasian who is so experienced and his son and he was
second-in-command. Four units given to the Vespasian and supported
by the forces of King Agrippa III and he invaded Galilee in 67 CE. A campaign had been started
to punish the people and to destroy castles of rebels while the attack was
avoided by forces of Titus in Jerusalem. In months, one of the most important
castle of Jewish ‘Galilee’ had been taken over by Vespasian and Titus.

After 47 days, Jotapata under command of Yosef
ben Matitiyahu overran. At the same time, conquering plan of Sicarii leader
Menahem was not successful in in Jerusalem and this attempt was cause of his
execution. Judean government oust the leader of a village, who is Simon
Bar-Giora, frm the city. Thus Ananus Ben Ananus started to make the city more
powerful place. So many refugees and rebels of Zealot had come to the city and
those people were driven from Galilee and they were cause of political problems
in Jerusalem. It was proven that Zealot factions of the Northern Revolt under
the command of John of Giscala and Eleazar ben Simon and confrontation between
the mainly Sadducee Jerusalemites. Ananus ben Ananus who fighted on the side of
the Zealots with Edomites entering the city and the forces had been damaged. Simon Bar Giora who commanded tov15.000 soldiers had
been invited to the Jerusalem to be able to stand against to the Zealots by
the leaders of Sadduce and he controlled the big part of city fastly. Unfortunately,
fights between Elazar and Bar Giora had continued until 69 C.E. Because of the
war in the city and political issues, army operations almost stopped and Vespasian
went back to the Rome and then he allowed as the new king in 69 AD. With
Vespasian’s going, Titus surround the centre of rebel resistance in Jerusalem
in early 70 AD. Although the first two walls had been breached in three weeks,
a stubborn had prevented the wall that is third of the Rome Army and the
strongest one to be broken. After seven months, Romans had succeeded to breach
the weak Jewish forces in 70 AD. Following the fall of Jerusalem, Titus left
for Rome, while Legion
X Fretens is defeated the remaining Jewish strongholds later on,
finalizing the Roman campaign in Masada in 73/74 AD.

Caesarea Eusebius and some Christian resources
noted that Constantine had experienced a striking occurrence in 312 at the
Battle of the Milvian Bridge, and after that Constantine wanted to be sovereign
empire of the West.In accordance with these sources, The Emperor Constantine
was looking at the sun before the war and he saw a glowing cross on it and saw
some  Greek words which mean a sign of victory. The Constantine ordered
his soldiers to decorate their protective shields with the symbol which
represents Christianity and after that Constantine and his soldiers became
victorious side .After the war, the new emperor came to ignore the altar of the
gods arranging in the Capitoline, and  did not make traditional sacrifices
to celebrate a triumphant Roman entry,  rather than going directly to the
empire’s palace. Nevertheless, the most powerful people of the empire,
especially the superior army authorities, did not change their religions into
Christianity and became member of a Roman traditional religions; Constantine’s
rule seemed at least willing to comfort these groups.After the war , Roman
money included the Roman Gods and this situation took 8 years. The memorials
that be built , like the Arch of Constantine, did not contain  any signs
about the Christianity.  

Constantine and Licinius declared that it is
right that each of the Christians and others must  have the freedom to
believe the  best-appearing religion in 313 so he tolerated beliefs which
are Christianity and other religions. Milano? Edict took the previous Galerius’ Tolerance Edict a step
forward in 311 and ?confiscated the Church goods. Milano Edict is
 declaration  for tolerance of Christianity in the Roman Empire. The
Roman emperors concluded a political agreement between Constantine I and
Licinius in Milan on February 313. In June 313 Licinius declared to Eastern
Rome that everyone had the rights to worship God  they wanted. Christians
thus have legal rights, including the establishment of churches. According to Edict,
the property seized in the state would be returned to the Christians
immediately.Constitution of Constantine I, and an alleged
religious order in the Roman Empire; in fact, is a breakdown of the
negotiations between Licinius and Constantine in Milan, a legitimate document,
a complete breakdown of the freedom of the nobility, the compensation of the
sufferings of Christians, and so on.

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